It is important that you choose a spot that gets full sun for at least five hours of the day. Ensure that the spot is not too windy. The soil should be well-drained. Before planting the tomatoes you should dig in generous amounts of cow manure as well as adding light sprinkle potash and a handful of lime for every square meter. The soil needs of sufficient amount of calcium which is why you would add the lime to soil, also you could apply pent moss. Compost or manure to the soil to improve its quality. As you dig and mix your soil with any of these compounds to the soil so it becomes richer and you get a better change of growth conditions.
Use the best seed starting mix you can get not plotting soil, not topsoil, only the best soil-less seed starting mix. Start the seed about 5 to 8 week before you plan to transplant outdoors. Thoroughly moisten the seed start mix and place it in a tray. Plant seed in the mix and cover with a plastic bag with the end propped open for a little air circulation. Place the tray in a warm spot such as on top of a TV. etc. or use a heating mat to get 70-85 degrees F. The minute you see the first seedling germinating, remove the bag and place the tray under grow light for 16 hours/day. Keep the temperature between 50 -85 degrees F. When the first leaves on the seedlings are about ½ inch long, transplant them into individual cells or pots. Bury them up nearly to the leaves so the stem can root, then place it back under a grow light and let it develop. Apply 2 feedings of 1 level teaspoon of 15-30-15 to a gallon of water.
The perfect planting day is a cloudy or overcast. If you must plant when it is sunny, do it early or later in the day so that the seedlings aren’t as stressed by the strong light. Place tomato plant 24”-30” apart, allow 5 to 6 feet between rows to allow room for plants and room for you to move weed, water, fertilize and pick. Dig a hole twice as big as the plant’s root ball. Use one hole for every tomato plant. Dig a trench 6 inches deep in the length of your planting area. About an hour before planting, water your tomatoes thoroughly. Fill hole1/3 full with topsoil. Add 1-2 scoops compost and a handful of fertilizer. Mix it well, add water to the hole and clip off the lower set leaves.
One of the simplest yet most important rules on watering of tomato plants is watering slowly. Don’t just empty the buckets on the soil surrounding plant. Another important point is watering tomatoes regularly, there’s no exact figure when it comes to regular watering tomatoes. You need to water tomato plants at the roots instead of pouring the water from top, because it encourages pests and diseases and water present on the leaves could burn the plant when the sun comes out.
Weeds compete with tomato plants for sunlight, nutrient and water. In the average garden, weeds are best controlled through cultivation, tomato plants have to be harvested early or by mulching. Weed can also e removed by hand, with a hoe or by cultivation. Mulch helps suppress weed growth, reduce water loss and stabilize soil temperature.
Mould is a common fungal that affects tomato plants. One of the causes of molding on tomato is the initial contamination is usually from the wind carried fungal spores which infect the host which is the tomato plant through a point of damage such as insect damage, decaying plant tissue or pruning wounds The most common symptom of mould infection is a grey-brown furry mould on shriveled buds and flowers. Controlling mould is all about maintaining healthy growing conductions and that means a dry well ventilated environment.
Staking or placing a cage around the plant, makes it easier to harvest and in some cases to cultivate tomatoes. When staking plants use wooden stakes about 8 feet long and 1 ½ inches wide. Insert the stake about 4 inches from the plant. Do this soon after transplanting to prevent root damage. Set the stakes 1 ½ to 2 feet deep for good support. Tie stripes of cloth, nylons around the stake and under leaflet branches about every 12 inches up to the stem. You also can tie a card to the stake 2 to 3 inches above a leaflet branch, then loop the card loosely around the main stem and tie it to the stake below the branch.
Pruning your plants is to remove unwanted shoots and leaves can be an important part of ensuring that all nutrients are going to the fruits. Remove all suckers and leaves below the first flower cluster. To remove a sucker, grab a growing tip by the base between the thumb and forefinger and bend it back and forth until it snaps cleanly. Allow 4 or 5 fruit bearing trusses to grow from the stem, and then pinch out the terminal shoot. Then remove the leaves as the plant begins to mature the lower leaves which will naturally begin to yellow and wilt. The tomatoes currently growing will have limited time to reach maturity, so all nutrients must e directly straight to the fruits.
When fertilizing tomato plants there are two types of fertilizer you could use, a liquid and granule fertilizer. Use 2 capful of fish emulsion for every gallon of water in the watering can, then fill can with water the mix it. Use a handful of tomato-tone and sprinkle it all around the plant root don’t let the fertilizer touch the plant stem. Use a small fork and gently works the fertilizer into the first couple of inches in the soil, don’t go too deep because it can damage the plant root. When you are done working the fertilizer into the soil, water the plant with the fish emulsion and water mix together and water the root of the plant.
Some common treatment method for tomato pest are spray the plant with a strong jet water steam hoes. This causes insects to dislodge and move on. Also you can remove insects using your hands with gloves on, and kill them after. You could also apply insecticidal soap, the fatty acid in the soap removes an insect protective waxes and cause disruption of insect’s cell membrane. Or you could just apply insecticide to kill the insects.
Most tomato diseases can be held in check if a fungicide is applied at first sign of trough. Remove the disease leaves or stems of tomato plants with viral disorders should be removed immediately and tools disinfected. You can apply copper spray, adding extra calcium in the soil could give some protection and crop rotation could also help.
When harvesting tomatoes you must look carefully at the outside of the tomato. The skin of the tomato should be smooth and slightly shiny without any dark spot. Feel the tomato for firmness. Test the weight of the tomato in your hand. Tomatoes that are heavy and dense are usually ripe and ready to pick. You can also smell the tomato to check for ripeness. Then grasp a ripened tomato gently and firmly. Twist it until it snaps off the vine. You can also use clipper or a knife to harvest the tomatoes, cut the stem close to the fruit.
Tomatoes are used for many things like: tomatoes are used to make ketchup, are juiced to make tomato juice which gets rid of skunk sell and is good for you. Some tomatoes are stewed and use in soup, they are also used on food like pizza, burger etc. and are sometimes used on food and drinks as decorations.
TOMATOES AND CABBAGES
DONE BY: JAVEL NOBLE 9COOKE
LAND PREPARATION FOR CABBAGE The field is ploughed to fine tilt by giving four to five ploughing with a sufficient interval between two ploughing. Planking should be done for proper leveling. Cabbages need nutritious soil if it is to produce a delicate, tender head. Work in two inches of well aged manure or compost into the soil. Growing cabbage works best in sunny well-drained garden soil enriched with compost.
SEEDLING PRODUCTION FOR CABBAGE Fill the tray to overflowing with compost, then lift the tray up and tap it down on the bench to consolidate the compost. Use a level, flat piece of wood to level off the compost by sliding it along the edges. Space the cabbage seed out individually so that each germinated seedling will have optimum amount of space to develop. Lightly cover the seed over with the same compost. Sit your prepared tray into a second, larger tray holding no more than an inch or so of water. After covering the seedlings have germinated and showing two strong seedling leaves, transplant them into individual small pots. When it’s time plant them in a well manure plot.
PLANTING AND SPACING CABBAGE When planting cabbages space the cabbage about 12 inches apart and plant ¼ deep, space 3 apart. Pick a planting spot that gets a lot of sunlight. Enrich soil with compost and dig a hole and place plant in., plant it up to the second leaf. After transplanting or spacing seed 9 to 12 inches in rows of 36 to 44 inches wide for 2 to 3lb heads. Using double rows per bed will increase yield 30 to 50% or more. Plants in double rows compete with weeds better and produce more uniform crops.
WATERING CABBAGE Cabbage needs about 1 ½ inches of rain per week best results. If you don’t get this much rain in your area, water your plants using a soaker hose, jugs or a regular hose. Give your cabbage plants one good, deep soak per week. When watering cabbage plants keep water pressure low to avoid eroding away the soil. When watering cabbage, water at the base because watering the top of the plant can encourage pests and diseases.
WEED CONTROL FOR CABBAGE Cover crop is a method used to control weeds. The cropping system will suppress perennial weed growth and reduce seed production of annual and perennial weeds. Tillage system helps in a way to control weeds, it depends on the type of tillage implement need and the depth at which the ground it is used has shown to influence the growth of weeds. The right selection of herbicide is also good for killing weeds
MOULDING IN CABBAGE White mould in cabbage is caused by a fungus that produces sclerotia that can germinate directly or produce apothecia. This mould affects the and leaves that are near to the ground and it spread out to other tissue on the plant until it the whole plant is affected. To control rotate with no-till non-host to induce germination of sclerotia and reduce the amount left in the soil.
FERTILIZING CABBAGE Add fertilizer to the soil just before transplanting cabbage seedlings. Choose a well-balanced granular fertilizer and sprinkle it around the cabbage. Once the seedlings are about 6 inches tall, you can fertilize them again with a well- balance water soluble fertilizer. Just mix it with water according to the manufacturer’s instructions and spray around your cabbage plants.
PEST CONTROL FOR CABBAGE Several insects, such as cabbageworms, aphids, flea beetles and cabbage maggots present problems for the cabbage growers because of the complexity. To help control pest it is a good idea to rotate crops. Appling insecticide is also a good idea to kill pest. Covering susceptible plants or growing plants in row covers will help to prevent insects from attacking the plant.
DISEASE CONTROL FOR CABBAGE Crop rotation is one way you can control diseases from attacking your cabbage plants. You could also put cardboard collar around new transplants to extend 1 to 2 above and below soil level. Insecticidal soap, a strong stream of water or to apply fungicide will help to control diseases in cabbage plants.
HARVESTING CABBAGE Harvest only those heads that are well-formed, firm and the interior is dense, by using a sharp knife. Once the cabbage is cut, move it out of the sun as soon as possible. Cabbage will sun blister and lose weight in direct sun. Cabbage can be stored at 32 degrees F and 98% humidity for up to 5 months.
Tomatoes originated in South America specifically in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador. Columbus and other explorers brought tomatoes to Europe by the late 1400s. In Europe and the United States, tomatoes were used only as ornamental plants until the early 18oos because the fruit was thought to be poisonous. Tomatoes are members of the botanical family (solanaceae), which contains many potentially poisonous plants. All members of this family have toxic alkiloids present in either their leaves or fruit. Commercial tomato production did not begin until after 1860 when tomatoes were finally accepted by consumers. There are two types of tomato plant growth habits: determinate and indeterminate. Determinate tomato plants will grow to a genetically specific height and produce all of their fruiting flowers at one time. Indeterminate tomato plants continue the grow and produce fruiting flowers throughout the entire season. The tomato plant has three scientific names, solanum lycopersicum-the most common, lycopersicon esculentum and lycopersicon lycopersicum.
* Standard globe-They are smooth, round and medium to large in size.
* Cherry-They are small, round, two celled tomato that also include the type known as current, they range in size from 1-2 inches diameter.
* Plum and Pear-Elongated tomatoes that are generally smooth. The pear shape like that of the yellow pear is distinctly smaller at the stem.