Indian Nationalism - India Essay Example
Racial arrogance – on the part of the British created resentment by Indians - Indian Nationalism introduction. They were treated as second-class citizens and were given only the poorest jobs. British in positions of power, such as General Mayo (Viceroy of India) openly made statements of racial superiority. Educated Indian professionals – felt they were denied equal opportunities within the “machinery” of British rule (such as the Indian Civil Service). They founded a nationalist movement that initially sought equal status for Indians and eventually sought full Indian independence.
Anti-Westernisation – Britain had changed India’s traditional institutions with apparently little respect for the existing culture and religion. British modernisation – probably helped spread the nationalist message. They had improved transport and communications. Indian Association 1885 – Began as a powerless “talking shop” but turned into the Indian National Congress, where Indians could voice their complaints against the British. Educated politicians used this parliament to rally support for the movement. Lord Curzon (Viceroy 1898-1905) gave no concessions to the natives.
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He allowed them no representation and saw them as inferior. Division of Bengal 1906 – was unpopular because it divided the regional cultures. In India, many people had greater affinity to their region than to the whole country. Splitting Bengal led to a swell of nationalist support. Factors Restraining Nationalism India was divided regionally – There was great cultural and religious divide across the regions. There were 200 different languages spoken across India so communication on a large scale was difficult.
There were also many religions (including Sikhs, Muslims, and Hindus) who would not co-operate with each other. Indian Congress was divided – Liberal wing led by Gokhale, and extremist wing led by Tilak. Congress was mainly Hindu and refused to co-operate with the Muslim League. This severely hindered efforts to unite India. Concessions were given – Indian Congress had been established, and Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 had been made. These reforms were made to give more powers to the Indian Congress over how Britain ruled over India. Having giving away some power, the nationalist movement was to some extent satisfied.