Inflation and its Causes
All the substance regarding this report has been explained with uphill struggle and care - Inflation and its Causes introduction. This write up has demonstrated in easy mode and is understandable by the reader. It will provide the intramural and threshold aura to read and it will cover all the requisites and proviso. One of the aesthetic and charming characteristics of this project is this, that it is composed and genial. ABSTRACT The capability of financial analysis over inflation effect on employment has been highly accentuated. This analysis has been acknowledged as the means through which the livelihood and other progressing goals of the routine matters can be enquired.
This report delves into the financial analysis through relationship between inflation and employment of a country like Pakistan. Statistical analysis with reference to previous year’s data provided by State Bank of Pakistan, inflation in the usual course of events with the help of examples. The verdict about financial analysis may facilitate policy makers, employment agencies, organization to ascertain, existing cooperation’s and besides customary the genteel maneuver to improve their lifestyle all over the country.
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METHODOLOGY Aspects about inflation relationship with employment in the country has been piled p by means of primary sources by interviewing Muslim Commercial Bank garden Town Branch in the Lahore; this was the part of our information collecting activity. Secondary information has been congregated through different economies, financial management and other books, internet sites of state bank of Pakistan, finance base sites in Pakistan, exiting reports on financial analysis and generals related to employment and inflation.
Our foremost endeavor was to compile and evaluate all relevant information with reference to employment and inflation in Pakistan and to Judge against this analysis with standard set by international market. BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Role of Financial management in the improvement process continues to be at the vanguard of strategy contest not only in this part of the world (Pakistan) but also in other countries. Most of the specifics about Financial Management Analysis have been renowned in the entire world.
The compensation allege for Financial Analysis are infinite, containing calculated interest rate, installments, present value of future position of company in the market, ratio comparison, shares and bonds value calculation, money flow, decision making with respect to financial condition of a organization, budget making (is one of the most beneficial process through which we can easily access our resources), and above all calculating economic strengthened in country.
By and large the premeditated role of financial management is perceived as accelerating the accomplishment of wider economic and social aspiration. Capitalist from all over the world suggests that financial management performing efficient role as participate by production and other departments in accomplish the eventual target of a firms. TABLE OF CONTENT Executive Summary Inflation Causes of Inflation Inflation and its Effects
Inflation and its Impact Economic Factors of Inflation Non-Economic Factors of Inflation Temporary Effects Permanent Effects Review 16 Theories about Employment 07 10 11 09 Fisher Effect 12 14 18 Relationship between Employment & Inflation 25 International Condition in Inflation Conclusion Appendix -Article 33 37 -Inflation Rates of Previous Years & Graphs 15 Employment 20 26 38 -Employment Rates Comparison EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 39 Our Project “Inflation and the Employment” basically contains the answer to this question “What is the Inflation”.
What are the basic meanings of inflation and what re the meanings of inflation according to the economics point of view. What are the factors by which inflation rises? Inflation’s effects which it create on the overall economy. It also describes the theories of famous economist “Fisher” about inflation. And how “Fisher” theories effect the inflation of overall economy. Then this project describes economic, non-economic, factors of inflation and its temporary and permanent effects on economy. Its effects on employment and how employment can be disturbed by the inflation.
Different theories of different economists are considerate to get a clear ND better understanding of inflation. This project clears the relationship between inflation and employment through graphs. Then we presented conclusion of the project. In appendix project covers an article about inflation and employment rates of previous years & graphs and their comparison. INFLATION Definition Inflation is a process in which the average level of prices increases at a substantial rate over a considerable period over time.
In short, more money is required to buy a given amount of goods and services. One can measure the rate of inflation as either he annual percentage rate increase in the average price level or decrease in the value of money. There are many causes of inflation, but in general we can divide them to the one at the demand-side and the one at the supply side of the economics. Demand pull inflation occurs when aggregate demand exceeds existing supply, forcing price increases and pulling up wages, materials, and operating and financial costs.
Cost- push inflation when price rises to cover total expenses and preserve profit margins. A pervasive cost-price spiral eventually develops as group and institutions respond to ACH other new round of increases. Deflation, as a reverse process, occurs when the spiral effects reversed. Even though today’s inflation is more of a mix between these two basic inflation causes and inflation inertia, this is a good classification to start with. Effects of Inflation Effect of inflation, on other hand is a many layered as its causes.
Inflation is usually thought as a negative phenomenon on the basis of traditional experiences with hyperinflation, but more exact analyses of the inflation effects have shown that they depend on the form of inflation and situation in national economy. One there no longer simplistically speak of effects of inflation. Despite the progress in understanding this phenomenon, there are still many subjects unclear and need consideration: potentially also advantages (benefits). Besides advantages and disadvantages of inflation, we also have to take into account costs of disinflation.
Decisions of stabilizing economics policy for or against the disinflation depend on results of a two- fold cost-benefit analysis. Results from inflation-effects analysis are important component of explaining inflation, because inflation can be politically desired caused) for its potential net benefits. Costs and benefits of inflation essentially depend on whether it is fully or only partially anticipated. Important regulation factors are also individual institutional circumstances, such as presence of index and revision clauses in long-term contracts.
Caused by economic effects, non-economic effects of inflation can also appear, like tax-refusal, citizen’s reluctance, strikes etc. Different situations in national economy can lead to different effects of inflation. These situations of inflation as well as effects of inflation will be presented in the following research. INFLATION AND ITS IMPACT Lets us take an example of an economical participant (firm) that borrow a long-term loan worth of 10,000 RSI at fixed interest rate and annual annuity of 1,000 RSI. Let us assume now that an unexpected inflation doubles price and wages.
Real worth of the wages has not changed, since the price also doubles (for double nominal wage this economic participant can now buy the same amount of goods and services as before), but the real worth of the annual annuity of his loan decreased. Nominal annual annuity is still 1,000 RSI, but the economic participant (borrower) has to work for that mount only half as much as before the inflation occurred. Hence the real worth of his annual annuity cut in two; the borrower increased his wealth, whilst the lender decreased his real income.
The other way around happens in a case of disinflation or even deflation, where the real worth of annual annuity of a loan increases and the borrower wealth decreases (lenders wealth increases). This kind of outcome occurs if the inflation has been stable for several years (inflation rate has neither increased nor decreased) and it increased suddenly, which means that it was not anticipated. However, if the increase in inflation is expected (on basis of different data about movement of economic variables in national economy and global markets), economic participants (individuals, firms, banks etc. Anticipate this increase. This means that the interest rates financial and capital markets will rise according to the inflation rate increase. Fisher’s Effect: Where “in” is nominal rate, “r” is real interest rate and are inflation expectations. This expression is also known as the Fisher’s effect and it shows that the negative effect of anticipated inflation on real money demanded is already included in nominal interest rate. When market interest rate accommodates to the inflation expectations, then the effect on income and wealth are mainly eliminated.
Beside redistribution of income, inflation also has real effects on national economy. On one hand it affects output (GAP), which is a macroeconomic effect and on the other it affects allocation of resources in national economy and economic efficiency, which is a microeconomic effect. Anticipation and Balance All this factors cause the so-called inflation cost. On the other hand, it has already been stated that inflation can lead to some benefits. In order to analyze these effects more precisely, two characteristics of inflation or behavior of economic participants have to be defined.
Inflation can be anticipated or unanticipated, which means that it is/it is not built into all economic relations (contracts). Inflation can be balanced or unbalanced, which means that all price rise/do not rise with the same rate (relative price remain/don not remain unchanged). In reality these characteristics of inflation and behavior of economic participants combine and cause different economic situations, which are presented in the following table. Economic Effects of Inflation To summarize, we can divide effects of inflation into two groups; an economic and non-economic effects.
We could also understand them as costs (advantages) and benefits (disadvantages) of inflation to a national economy. Economic effects are as follow: Income effect; by these effects we understand deviation of growth rate of the GAP its natural growth rate, caused by inflation. They don’t include feasible shrinks in the natural growth rate of the GAP. Employment effect; which are in strong connection with income effects. Hence they are usually defined as difference teen natural and actual rate of unemployment.
Distribution effect; of which two are traditionally subjects of practical research and scientific analysis: effect of inflation on distribution of income and effect of inflation on distribution of wealth. Allocation effect; which are the most obvious with money (cash); in term of high inflation people (economic participants) want to get rid of money because real interest rate is usually negative and their demand for other assets increase. Price of inputs for production that are based on long-term contracts cannot rise as high inflation rate either; therefore missed investments are a common phenomenon.
Theses are all allocation effects of inflation, also known as microeconomic effects. Effects on economic growth; connection between inflation and natural growth of the GAP definitely exists (at least on short term), but it is still for the most part unsolved. Phenomena, such as barter trade, parallel economy (also known as “grey economy’) and corruption can appear or intensify and they all decrease natural growth rate of the GAP. These effects of inflation are also known as macroeconomic effects and are n strong connection with allocation (microeconomic) effects.
Non-economic effects of inflation are caused by economic effects and are the following: tax-refusal, citizen’s reluctance, strikes, revolts; rising etc. These effects are not a part of our research. Employment Effects of Inflation Employment effects are usually defined as difference between natural and actual rate of unemployment and are therefore in strong connection with income effects of inflation. That deviates of growth rate of GAP below its natural growth rate, caused by inflation.
That is why these two types of inflation effects are examined together. Income and employment effects of inflation are known in two forms as temporary and permanent effects. Phases of Inflation Inflation usually passes over three typical phases: at first it is accelerated, then it is steady (stabilized) and at last it decelerates. Temporary effects are mainly connected with accelerated and decelerated inflation, hence these two Phases are assumed to last for a shorter time, while permanent effects are connected with steady (stabilized) inflation.
Employment and income effects of inflation are mainly temporary phenomena that last only as long as inflation is not yet fully anticipated. Whether these effects have positive or negative consequences for a national economy depends on the stage in which inflation is discovered and situation in which economy found. Let us examine two inevitable types of inflation now: accelerated and decelerated inflation. Accelerated Inflation Accelerated acceleration is often accompanied by income and employment effect (inflation-accompanied prosperity).
However, these effects can only be expected, when the increase of inflation rate is caused by monetary demand-pull and induced supply-push is delayed (a time-lag has to emerge between decreased monetary emend-pull and induced supply-push). If the growth rate of the money volume in the further course of adaptation process remains unchanged, positive real effects are only temporary, because of the subsequent supply-push, induced expectations and wage bargaining.
Real inflation effects can only be realized, if growth rate of the money supply rises continuously and by that stable inflation acceleration is provoked. Thus means that there can no longer be any applicable long-term trade-off between given inflation rate and unemployment rate. Decelerated Inflation there are quite common with decelerated inflation. Necessary prerequisite for a lasting decrease in inflation speed is a tight monetary-policy authorities are confident in their knowledge of the amount of tightening that is needed, they can move quickly to the required higher level for interest rates.
However, to extend that there is more uncertainty on the effects of monetary policy changes, due to the development of financial markets, it argues for implementing a more gradualist approach. Such uncertainty could increase the risk that a strong policy action might lead to undesirable outcomes. Gradualist strategy central banks sacrifice the speed with which their target is obtained in order to avoid overshooting the target. The degree if gradualism will be dictated by other considerations, such as central banks anti- inflationary credibility.
If it is poor, there is heightened risk that a gradual policy response would increase inflation expectations. Anti-inflation Economic Policy Policies of gradualism create stress between preemptive and reactive moves. An increase risk of “falling behind the curve” suggests that a gradualist policy may needed to be followed by more aggressive moves, if events appear to be turning out differently than expected. E. G. F health were to weaken the effect of higher interest rates, at the same time that wealth effects were stimulating consumption, monetary policy would face an increasing risk of “falling behind the curve”.
These tensions raise the importance of the monetary authorities, credibility and transparency. If inflation expectation is well anchored, policy actions will be more effective and thus the size of any move to achieve a given objective is likely to be smaller. A credible commitment to low inflation thus provides some insurance against “falling behind the curve”. Transparency reduces the risk that policy changes will destabilize arrests.
Such a strategy would allow markets to adjust their anticipations appropriately and in this way, the risk of a disorderly adjustment of asset prices can be reduced. Permanent Effects If we presume that inflation was on long-term correctly expected and completely anticipated and that there was no wage bargaining, the (long-term) curve of aggregate supply growth SSL and the (long-term) Philips curve PACK in the presented basic model become vertical functions of natural income-level growth rate as well as natural unemployment rate. Note: Donation Beta represents anticipation coefficient.
Friedman-Phelps Hypothesis: This corresponds to the so-called Friedman-Phelps hypothesis, by which no income and employment effects can appear with completely anticipated inflation, I. E. Each on short term possible trade-off vanishes on long-term and income-growth rate as well as unemployment rate preserve on its natural level. Reacts to such policy (with downward correction of price level), the higher are inflation costs (expenses of such inflation fighting) and danger of premature collapse of tight monetary policy increases. Anti-inflation policy therefore has to keep inflation cost as low as possible, I. . T has to pursue an adaptation path that is close to SSL as well as PACK as it can be to achieve this, anti-inflation policy has to include well- measured and above all continuous decrease of money-supply growth rate and a series of accompany measures for adaptation of expectations and for softening the wage bargaining. Effect on output stabilization may well be positive and the same is true for overall social welfare, but we cannot forget that uncertainty about the policymakers preference leads to a higher inflationary bias and also inflationary cost.
EMPLOYMENT The inadequacy of public employment as a source of additional Jobs are generally understood, and it is recognized that the use of this expedient is “to some extent a desperation measure”, the current employment program relies mainly on the stimulation of the private economy by means of an inflationary tax cut, the only other tool that is now regarded as being available for the purpose. The deliberate use of inflation as a means of increasing business activity and employment is based on J. M.
Keynes’ economic theories, and to see Just how our present findings apply to this situation, it will first be desirable to have a clear idea as to Just what Keynes’ contentions with respect to employment actually are. His theory was developed as an alternate to the so-called “classical” theory of employment, the previously orthodox economic doctrine in this field, and his explanations are expressed mainly in terms of contrast with the earlier views”. The classical theory of employment”, he says, “has been based… On two fundamental postulates… Namely: The wage is equal to the marginal product of labor. The utility of the wage when a given volume of labor is employed is equal to the marginal disability of that “amount of employment. ” Translating the second postulate from the professional Jargon of the economist to the Renaults, he arrives at this alternative, and more understandable, statement: “That is to say, the real wage of an employed person is that which is Just sufficient (in the estimation of the employed persons themselves) to induce the volume of labor actually employed to be forthcoming”.
Keynes accepts the first of these two postulates but denies the second. The most fundamental objection to this proposition, he says, is that it involves “the assumption that the general level of real analysis he shows that this assumption is erroneous, and he arrives at the same inclusion reached in the present analysis; that is, the general level of real wages is fixed by factors which operate independently of the bargaining process, and it is not altered by any manipulation of money wages.
According to Keynes, the “classical” economists’ basic mistake in their analysis of the employment situation is a result of their explicit or tacit acceptance of Says Law of Markets, a principle formulated by J. B. Say, one of the early French economists, which asserts that in so far as the price paid by the buyer is income for the seller, the act of production creates all of the archiving power required to buy the product. Keynes termed this principle “an optical illusion, which makes two essentially different activities appear to be the same”.
By virtue of its acceptance of this law, “The classical theory assumes that the collective demand price always accommodates it self to the aggregate supply price. Effective demand, instead of having a unique equilibrium value is an infinite range of values all equally admissible; and the amount of employment is indeterminate except in so far as the marginal disability of labor sets an upper limit. If this were rue, competition between entrepreneurs would always lead to an expansion of employment up to the point at which the supply of output as a whole ceases to be elastic”.
Thus Says Law, Keynes contends, “is equivalent to the proposition that there is no obstacle to full employment”. Since there obviously is some obstacle to full employment, and since the ability to manipulate the real wage level assumed by the classical theory does not actually exist, Keynes rejected that theory and formulated a new concept in which for a given “propensity to consume” and a given rate of new investment. There will be only one level of employment consistent with equilibrium”.
He summarized his new concept in these words: The outline of our theory can be expressed as follows. When employment increases, aggregate real income is increased. The psychology of the community is such that when aggregate real income is increased aggregate consumption is increased, but not by as much as income… Thus, to Justify any given amount of employment there must be an amount of current investment sufficient to absorb the excess of total output over what the community chooses to consume when employment is at the given level.
Here, then, we have Keynes’ employment theory, as presented by its author, together with his explanation of the principal points of conflict between his ideas and the theoretical outlook shared by most of his predecessors: the “classical” theory. This classical theory is a wage theory; that is, it is based on supply and demand reasoning applied to the price of labor. Since a lower price, according to the classical ideas, will increase the demand that is, the number of Jobs – there would appear to be no obstacle to full employment if the workers are willing to accept the appropriate wage.
But the adherents of this viewpoint are victims of that unquestioning confidence in the universal applicability of the supply and demand principles that so often leads economists to apply these principles to issues which are not supply and demand problems at all. Considerations of supply and demand are not applicable to any situation unless the price is variable, and as Keynes has emphasized, the real wage rate, the true price of labor, is fixed by external factors (the factors that determine the rate of productivity) and cannot be arbitrarily changed.