This is one of the version of spy robot which we designed in this academic period. Intelligent spy robot project has been designed for the spying purpose . it is radio controlled and can be operated at a radial distance of 50 yards. Many time our army jawan need to venture into the enemy area just to track their activities. Which is often a very risky job, it may cost precious life. Such dangerous job could be done using small spy robot all the developed and advance nations are in the process of making combat robot design, a robot who can fight against enemy.
Our robot us just a step towards similar activity. This robot is radio operated , self powered , and has all the controls like a normal car. A laser gun has been installed on it so that it can fire on enemy remotely when required, this is not possible until a wireless camera is installed. Wireless camera will send real time video and audio signals which could be seen on a remote monitor and action can be taken accordingly. Being in size small will not be tracked by enemy on his radar. It can silently enter into enemy canopy or tent and send us all the information through its’ tiny camera eyes. It can also be used for suicide attack, if required.
DESCRIPTON OF COMPONENT USING THIS PROJECT
Transmitter circuit explanation: six keys are connected in four by two matrix to the microcontroller ic1 at2051. Key data is transmitted through the 433mhztransmitter module through its pin no 3 of the microcontroller which is tx pin of the inbuilt UART of the microcontroller and works on 1200bits/sec. X1 gives the required clock input to the microcontroller c1 and r1 forms the reset circuitory connected to pin no 1 of the microcontroller.
First connect the jumper wires(links) before you solder the IC sockets. Donot solder integrated circuits directly on the circuit board, it may damage the ic since you may not be experianced soldering person. So solder the ic sockets first on the circuit board. Solder smaller components first like resistance and disk capacitors, assemble the complete kit one by one. Please make sure that there are no short circuits left on to the circuit board. Check the power supply at all the sockets mounted on circuit board it should be 5 to 5. v dc.
FLOW CHART OF TRANSMITTER BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RECEVIER FLOW CHART OF RECEIVER
The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash,128 bytes of RAM,15 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analog comparator, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters,serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning.
Pin Description VCC: Supply voltage. GND: Ground. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-Directional I/O port. Port pins P1. 2 to P1. 7 provide internal pullups. P1. 0 and P1. 1 require external pullups. P1. 0 and P1. 1 also serve as the positive input (AIN0) and the negative input (AIN1), respectively, of the on-chip precision analog comparator. The Port 1 output buffers can sink 20 mA and can drive LED displays directly.
When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they can be used as inputs. When pins P1. 2 to P1. 7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 Port 3 pins P3. 0 to P3. 5, P3. 7 are seven bi-irectional I/O pins with internal pullups. P3. 6 is hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip comparator and is not accessible as a general purpose I/O pin. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20 mA.
When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C2051 as listed below: Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Reset input. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high. Holding the RST pin high for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or clock cycles.
XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. Figure 1. Oscillator Connections Important: C1, C2 = 30 pF ± 10 pF for Crystals = 40 pF ± 10 pF for Ceramic Resonators Figure 2. External Clock Drive Configuration Oscillator Characteristics XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used.
To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed. Special Function Registers A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space is shown in the table below.
Note that not all of the addresses are occupied, and unoccupied addresses may not be implemented on the chip. Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random data, and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect. User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations, since they may be used in future products to invoke new features. In that case, the reset or inactive values of the new bits will always be 0. Restrictions on Certain Instructions The AT89C2051 and is an economical and cost-effective member of Atmel’s growing family of microcontrollers.
It contains 2K bytes of flash program memory. It is fully compatible with the MCS-51 architecture, and can be programmed using the MCS-51 instruction set. However,there are a few considerations one must keep in mind when utilizing certain instructions to program this device. All the instructions related to jumping or branching should be restricted such that the destination address falls within the physical program memory space of the device, which is 2K for the AT89C2051. This should be the responsibility of the software programmer.
For applications involving interrupts the normal interrupt service routine address locations of the 80C51 family architecture have been preserved. 2. MOVX-related instructions, Data Memory: The AT89C2051 contains 128 bytes of internal data memory. Thus, in the AT89C2051 the stack depth is limited to 128 bytes, the amount of available RAM. External DATA memory access is not supported in this device, nor is external PROGRAM memory execution.
Therefore, no MOVX [… ] instructions should be included in the program. A typical 80C51 assembler will still assemble instructions,even if they are written in violation of the restrictions mentioned above. It is the responsibility of the controller user to know the physical features and limitations of the device being used and adjust the ins t ructions used correspondingly. Program Memory Lock Bits On the chip are two lock bits which can be left unprogrammed (U) or can be programmed (P) to obtain the additional features listed in the table below: Table 1.
AT89C2051 SFR Map and Reset Values Lock Bit Protection Modes Note: 1. The Lock Bits can only be erased with the Chip Erase operation. Idle Mode In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the onchip peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset. P1. 0 and P1. 1 should be set to “0” if no external pullups are used, or set to “1” if external pullups are used.
It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory. Power-down Mode
In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that invokes power down is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain their values until the power down mode is terminated. The only exit From power down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-chip RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize. P1. 0 and P1. 1 should be set to “0” if no external pullups are used, or set to “1” if external pullups are used.
Programming The Flash The AT89C2051 is shipped with the 2K bytes of on-chip PEROM code memory array in the erased state (i. e. , contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. The code memory array is programmed one byte at a time. Once the array is programmed, to re-program any non-blank byte,the entire memory array needs to be erased electrically. Internal Address Counter: The AT89C2051 contains an internal PEROM address counter which is always reset to 000H on the rising edge of RST and is advanced by applying a positive going pulse to pin XTAL1.
Turn VCC power off Data Polling: The AT89C2051 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a write cycle. During a write cycle, an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written data on P1. 7. Once the write cycle has been completed, true data is valid on all outputs, and the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated.
Ready/Busy: The Progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. Pin P3. 1 is pulled low after P3. 2 goes High during programming to indicate BUSY. P3. is pulled High again when programming is done to indicate READY. Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed code data can be read back via the data lines for verification:
- Reset the internal address counter to 000H by bringing RST from “L” to “H”.
- Apply the appropriate control signals for Read Code data and read the output data at the port P1 pins.
- Pulse pin XTAL1 once to advance the internal address counter.
- Read the next code data byte at the port P1 pins.
- Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the entire array is read.
The lock bits cannot be verified directly. Verification of the lock bits is achieved by observing that their features are enabled. Chip Erase: The entire PEROM array (2K bytes) and the two Lock Bits are erased electrically by using the proper combination of control signals and by holding P3. 2 low for 10 ms. The code array is written with all “1”s in the Chip Erase operation and must be executed before any nonblank memory byte can be re-programmed. Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 000H, 001H, and 002H, except that P3. 5 and P3. 7 must be pulled to a logic low.
The values returned are as follows. (000H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel (001H) = 21H indicates 89C2051 Programming Interface Every code byte in the Flash array can be written and the entire array can be erased by using the appropriate combination of control signals. The write operation cycle is selftimed and once initiated, will automatically time itself to completion. All major programming vendors offer worldwide support for the Atmel microcontroller series. Please contact your local programming vendor for the appropriate software revision.
DB25 Fastener of 25 pin parallel door PC (LPT) -Optional REGULATIONS:
- With the P1 we regulate the intensity of sound.
- With the P2 we regulate the frequency of reception.
Optionally: If you want to check the frequency with your PC it will be supposed you make the following energies: You assemble and the circuit that is in the blue frame. You cut the driver dj’pla in point A, as it appears in the circuit and you connect points A,V . If you know some language of programming as C ++, PASCAL, VISUAL BASIC, DELPHI etc you can write a program which will send in the parallel door (378 I) of PC a number from 0 until 255 checking thus the tendency of expense of simple D/A of converter (that it is in blue frame) and consequently and frequency of radio via passage VARICAP.
Receiver A radio receiver is an electronic circuit that receives its input from an antenna, uses electronic filters to separate a wanted radio signal from all other signals picked up by this antenna, amplifies it to a level suitable for further processing, and finally converts through demodulation and decoding the signal into a form usable for the consumer, such as sound, pictures, digital data, measurement values, navigational positions, Today AV receivers are a common component in a high-fidelity or home-theatre system.
The receiver is generally the nerve centre of a sophisticated home-theatre system providing selectable inputs for a number of different audio components like turntables, compact-disc players and recorders, and tape decks ( like video-cassette recorders) and video components (DVD players and recorders, video-game systems, and televisions). With the decline of vinyl discs, modern receivers tend to omit inputs for turntables, which have separate requirements of their own.
All other common audio/visual components can use any of the identical line-level inputs on the receiver for playback, regardless of how they are marked (the “name” on each input is mostly for the convenience of the user. ) For instance, a second CD player can be plugged into an “Aux” input, and will work the same as it will in the “CD” input jacks. Some receivers can also provide signal processors to give a more realistic illusion of listening in a concert hall. Digital audio S/PDIF and USB connections are also common today.
The home theater receiver, in the vocabulary of consumer electronics, comprises both the ‘radio receiver’ and other functions, such as control, sound processing, and power amplification. The standalone radio receiver is usually known in consumer electronics as a tuner. Some modern integrated receivers can send audio out to seven loudspeakers and an additional channel for a subwoofer and often include connections for headphones. Receivers vary greatly in price, and support stereophonic or surround sound.
A high-quality receiver for dedicated audio-only listening (two channel stereo) can be relatively inexpensive; excellent ones can be purchased for $300 US or less. Because modern receivers are purely electronic devices with no moving parts unlike electromechanical devices like turntables and cassette decks, they tend to offer many years of trouble-free service. In recent years, the home theater in a box has become common, which often integrates a surround-capable receiver with a DVD player. The user simply connects it to a television, perhaps other components, and a set of loudspeakers.
Two-phase electrical power was an early 20th century polyphase alternating current electric power distribution system. Two circuits were used, with voltage phases differing by 90 degrees. Usually circuits used four wires, two for each phase. Less frequently, three wires were used, with a common wire with a larger-diameter conductor. Some early two-phase generators had two complete rotor and field assemblies, with windings physically offset by 90 electrical degrees to provide two-phase power. The generators at Niagara Falls installed in 1895 were the largest generators in the world at the time and were two-phase machines.
The advantage of two-phase electrical power was that it allowed for simple, self-starting electric motors. In the early days of electrical engineering, it was easier to analyze and design two-phase systems where the phases were completely separated. It was not until the invention of the method of symmetrical components in 1918 that polyphase power systems had a convenient mathematical tool for describing unbalanced load cases. The revolving magnetic field produced with a two-phase system allowed electric motors to provide torque from zero motor speed, which was not possible with a single-phase induction motor (without extra starting means).
Induction motors designed for two-phase operation use the same winding configuration as capacitor start single-phase motors. Two-phase circuits typically use two separate pairs of current-carrying conductors. Alternatively, three wires may be used, but the common conductor carries the vector sum of the phase currents, which requires a larger conductor. Three phase can share conductors so that the three phases can be carried on three conductors of the same size.
In electrical power distribution, a requirement of only three conductors rather than four represented a considerable istribution-wire cost savings due to the expense of conductors and installation. Two-phase power can be derived from a three-phase source using two transformers in a Scott connection. One transformer primary is connected across two phases of the supply. The second transformer is connected to a center-tap of the first transformer, and is wound for 86. 6% of the phase-to-phase voltage on the 3-phase system. The secondaries of the transformers will have two phases 90 degrees apart in time, and a balanced two-phase load will be evenly balanced over the three supply phases.
RF433-RX is 433mhz radio receiver which receives the transmitted coded from the remote place these codes are converted to digital format and out put is available to the pin no 2 of the ic2 master microcontroller, this is the rx pin of inbuilt UART of the microcontroller. We are using UART to receive our codes at 1200 boud rate. Based on the input codes master will give command to slave microcontroll and robo will behave as follows. a. moves in forward direction b. moves in reverse direction, c. speed controls in both the direction d. it can even turn left or right while moving forward or in reverse direction.
Instent reverse or forward running without stopping f. In case of bump,moves reverse turn left or right and wail for the next instruction . g. On the spot left or right turn to pass through the nerrow space h. We have also added head light, back light and turing lights to left a right . These lights automatically comes on while robot is in movement. Laser gun can be fired at any time irrespective of robot stopped or moving. Bmp1 and bmp2 (forward and fterward)bumpers are connected to pin no 6 of the ic2 when ever this pin becomes low robot will stop instantly and will move few steps in reverse direction turn left or right and stops.
Pin no 11,12,13,15. 16 and 17 of the master microcontroller are connected to the slave microcontroller ic3 to give the following pulses to the slave microcontroller
- Start /stop
- Increase speed
- Increase speed
- Direction change
- Turn left
- Turn right
When one of the pin becomes high and other pin becomes low motor will turn in one direction reversing the polarity of pin motor will turn other direction. When forward command is received ,both the motors will run in forward direction. When reverse command is received both the motors will run in reverse direction. while moving in forward or reverse direction if left or right command is received one of the motor stops and other keeps moving this action gives left or right turn.
For example if left motor is stopped , robot will turn in right direction, and when right motor is stopped robot will torn in left direction. hen fire command is received, pin no 14 of ic2 will go high and transistor Q1 will become ON and laser diode d9 will get forward biasing through d7,d8 and it will glow. R2 r3, r15 and r16 are pull up resistor connected to pin no 12 and 13 of ic2 and ic3 Crystal X1,X2 and apair of 33pf capacitor gives the required clock pulse to both the microcontroller.
Capacitor r1 and c1 and c8,r14 gives the required reset pulse to microcontroller pin no 1 datasheets. these can be downloaded free from the manufacturers site . robo is powered by five non rechargable 7. 2v 1200ma battery pack which gives 7. v dc out put. IC1 7805 is a regulator ic gives 5v regulated supply. Unregulated 7. 2 is used to drive the motor circuit and 5v regulated power is for the rest of the circuit. Capacitor c11 and c12 are for spark quench. C4, C5 c9,c10 are filter capacitors. Capacitor c5 and c10 are to noise supperession. resistance r12 is for pullup.
Some common noise sources are microprocessors, brush-type motors and high-speed logic circuits. If the rise time and fall time of the clock in a microprocessor are fast enough to produce harmonics in the frequency range of the receiver input and the harmonics fall within the pass band of the receiver, then special care must be taken to reduce the level of the harmonic at the antenna port of the receiver. Based on above analysis, the following actions have to be taken:
- Microprocessor choice: Choose those microprocessors which has lowest rise time and lowest fall time,if available.
- Brush-type motor choice: Choose those brush-type motors, which has spark suppression built in or better not to use such type of motors.
- Logic circuits choice: High-speed logic circuits generate noise similar to microprocessors. Thus better to choose those circuits with the lowest rise time and the lowest fall time, if available.
- Place the receiver and its antenna as far from the noise source as possible.
- During PCB layout, keep line lengths at a minimum that carry high-speed logic signals or supply brush type motors. Such lines work like antennas that radiate the unwanted noise.
- If possible, enclose the noise source in a grounded metal box and use RF-decoupling on the input/output lines.
- It is advisable to use separate voltage regulator for the RF receiver. If the same voltage regulator has to be used for cost purpose, then a decoupler circuit is recommended so that high frequency noise can be screened.
- The ground path from the receiver module should go directly to the power ground, in between, no other ground paths can join in, otherwise, noise will be introduced in and receiver function will be greatly influenced.
Suitable antennas are required to the success of low-power wireless application. There are some key points on applying the antennas:
- Antenna should be placed on the outside of the product. And try to place the antenna on the top of the product.
- Antena cannot be placed inside a metal case because of its shielding effect.
- Antenna design involves expensive test equipments such as vector network analyzer and calibrated test antenna. Unless you have access to these equipments, the use to an antenna consultant is recommended.
- In most indoor locations, dead spots can be found where reception is difficult.