Transactional communication model: a characterization of communication as the simultaneous sending and receiving of messages is an ongoing, irreversible process; shows that communicators occupy different environments 1 . Example) Roommate: “l want to talk about cleaning the kitchen… ” You: *grimace and clench your jaw* Roommate: *defensively* “Now wait a minute… ” 2.
Example) Parents who have trouble recalling their out are likely to clash with their children, who have never known and may not appreciate the responsibility that comes with parenting. 4. Know what needs are met through communication. 1 . Physical Needs: people with strong social networks tend to live longer, healthier, happier lives than those in social isolation. 2. Identity Needs: communication is the only way we learn who we are; we decide who we are by others reactions to us 1 . Example) smart/stupid, attractive/ugly, skillful/ inept 3. Social Needs: vital connection between interpersonal communication and happiness 1.
Example) pleasure; affection; companionship; escape; elation; control 4. Practical (Instrumental) Goals: getting others to behave in ways we want 1 . Example) communicate with hairstylist/doctors/nurses/ police/etc. ; distribute household duties 5. Understand what the process of self-monitoring is. 1 . Self-Monitoring: the process of paying close attention to on?s behavior and using these observations to shape the way one behaves. 2. Self-monitors are able to separate a part oftener consciousness and observe their behavior from a detached viewpoint, making observations such as: 1. I’m making a fool out of myself’; “I’d better speak up now’; “This approach is working well, I’ll keep it up” 6. Understand what interpersonal communication is, and what impersonal communication is. 1. Interpersonal Communication: a continuous, transactional process involving participants who occupy different but overlapping environments and create relationships through the exchange of messages, many of which are affected by external, physiological, and psychological noise; treat each other as unique individuals regardless of context or the number of people involved 1 .
Interpersonal Relationships have :uniqueness; repeatability; and interdependence 1. Examples) salesclerk ND customer; police officer ticketing a speeding driver 2. Impersonal Communication: behavior that treats others as objects rather than individuals 7. Study thoroughly the discussion of self-concept. 1 . Self-Concept: who you think you are; the relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself. 1 . Example) emotional states; talents; likes/dislikes; values; roles 2. The self-concept is subjective and could be distorted. This could occur for several reasons: 1 .
Obsolete Information: the effects of a situation can linger long after they’ve occurred, even though such events don’t predict failure in the future. Past success doesn’t guarantee future success. 2. Distorted Feedback: remarks of overly critical parents, cruel friends, uncaring teachers, excessively demanding employer, or even memorable strangers 1 . Example) a child’s inflated ego could be from praise of doting parents; boss’s inflated ego could be from praise of browsing employees 3. Perfectionism: the nlevee believe that everyone else is perfect and one isn’t 4.
Social Expectations: talk freely about our shortcomings and downplay our accomplishments 3. The self-concept resists change, and to change you must: 1. Have a realistic perception of yourself 2. Have realistic expectations . Have the will to change 4. Have the skills to change 8. Know the steps in the perception checking process. 1 . Perception Checking: skill that provides better way to handle your interpretations; helps you accurately understand others instead of assuming your first interpretation is correct; has 3 parts 1 . Description of the behavior you noticed 2.
At least two (2) possible interpretations of the behavior 3. A request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior 1 . Example) ‘When you stomped out the room and slammed the door,” (behavior) “l wasn’t sure if you were mad at me,” (1 SST interpretation)”or just in a hurry. (2nd interpretation) “How did you feel? ‘ (request for clarification) 2. Sometimes a perception check won’t need all the parts listed above. 1. Example) “You haven’t dropped by lately. Is anything the matter? ‘ (single interpretation with clarification request) 3.
Perception check can succeed only if your nonverbal behavior reflects the open mindedness of your words. 1 . Example) an accusing tone/hostile glare will contradict your sincerely worded request for clarification, suggesting you’ve already made up your mind about their intentions 4. Perception checking approach works best on cultures in which members use language as erectly as possible. 5. Perception checking can also be used as a face-saving way to raise an issue without directly threatening or attacking the other person 1 . Example) “Are you planning on doing those dishes later, or did you forget that it’s your turn? “Am I boring you, or do you have something else on your mind? ” 9. Know how sensory data affects and/or relates to perception. 1. Differences in how each of us sees, hears, tastes, touches, and smells can affect interpersonal relationships. 1 Identical foods taste different to different people 2. Scents that some like, repel others 3. Temperature variations that leave some uncomfortable are inconsequential to others 2. Can’t eliminate these differences, but makes it easier to realize others’ preferences aren’t crazy, just different. 0. Know the difference between facilitative and debilitate emotions. 1 . Facilitative Emotions: emotions which contribute to effective functioning 1 . Example) nervousness, anger 2. Debilitate Emotions: emotions which detract from effective functioning; longer duration and much more intense emotions 1. Example) rage 11. Know the seven fallacies. 1. Fallacy of Perfection: aspire to be perfect in all aspects; believes a airworthier communicator should be able to handle all situations with complete confidence and skill 2.
Fallacy of Approval: vital to get approval of virtually every person 3. Fallacy of Should: inability to distinguish between what is and what should be 4. Fallacy of Personalization: overgrazing everything 5. Fallacy of Causation: always blaming someone else for how they feel 6. Fallacy of Helplessness: satisfaction in life is determined by forced beyond your control; victim all the time; easy way out 7. Fallacy of Catastrophic Expectations: very negative; if something bad can happen, it will at the worst mime possible 12. Essay Question (22 Points) 1 .
Why is it important for Americans to have an awareness of communication differences among people Of different cultures? And what principles/ concepts are important for communicating in intercultural groups?