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Introduction to software engineering

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MRT Online Bus Reservation System is Windows based application that works within centralized network. The software program “MRT Online Bus Reservation System” provides bus transportation system, a facility to reserved seats, cancellation of seats and different types of enquiry which need an instant and quick reservation. MRT Online Bus Reservation System is built for manage and computerize the traditional database, ticket booking and tracking bus and travel made easy. It maintains all data’s of user, bus details, reservation details, booking details, customer details.

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The objective of this project is to upgrade the system which can help them to solve the issues that they facing in recent system. To produce the system successful, it’s necessary to achieve the following objective in the assignment. Ensure that the new system is going to meet the requirement of the customers helping the involvement of customers during the development of the system. Provide a best solution and proper design for the system with a minimum of cost and times.

Upgrade the system and implementations of system which can help to handle the business operation of delivery and meet the customer’s requirements. SCOPE

Save the fuss of having to go to coach counters to purchase your tickets. Enjoy the convenience of our one-stop portal for your traveling needs. Save your time of joining a long queue to buy ticket.

Purchasing process is fast and easy.
Choose your seat online.


A Project Plan sets out the phases, activities and tasks needed to deliver a project. The timeframes required delivering the project, along with the resources and milestones are also shown in the Project Plan. Using this project plan Template, you can quickly and easily create a comprehensive Project Management Plan for your project, as it already lists the commonly used tasks needed to complete projects from start to finish.



MRT Bus Agency is a domestic privatized transportation company that runs the vehicles all over the country. They have several branches at different locations of the country, so that they can provide the transportation facilities between the places. They want an desktop application to be developed, where the details of the bookings done and the customer will be updated from time to time and user can track the details of the available seats immediately. We also learned that there are some insufficient main problem that can affect agency revenues and the demand to resolve immediately. Defining the problem is one of the important activities of the project. The aim is to precisely define the problem to be resolved, and therefore determine the scope of the new system. So help us define the goal to be achieved and the system boundaries. A clear understanding of the problems will help us build a better system and reduce the chance of project failure. It additionally specifies the resources that have to be made available to the project. These problems are listed as below:

1. Heavy Paper Workloads
“MRT Bus Agency” booking service is currently operation on a manual system. here are a lot of papers work needs to be encompassed so it is incredible and time consuming. As the data entry process is completed in manually, it makes a lot of wastages seized locale and cause many errors such as data redundancy. As well that, price of creation and operation also is high because of high usage of paper. 2. Poor Customers Tracking System

Since all data are recorded in paper, it reasons a workers to use a lot of period to find the clients details. After a new customer calls there will be an supplementary procedure to record down the whole new customer’s info for upcoming use. If the customer’s data is lost, the staffs demand to record once more the present customer’s data and this consumes lot of period also. Supplementary than this, after the customer wants to change her/his order, there is always a long procedure to go that starts from the beginning.

3. Difficulty in Communication
When the customer calls for booking, there might be some problem that may affect the communication between the staff and the customer which eventually leads to contact barrier. For example, there might be some miscommunication between the customer and the workers which are caused by the surroundings noises while a staff receiving the call. This can cause the wrong booking to be seized place. 4. Coach company and Seats

This problem occurs when customers booking the ticket from phone call. Customers won’t be able to choose their seats they would want to book and also their coach company.


Requirement analysis is the survey and planning of the system and project, the study and analysis of the existing business and information system, and the definition of business requirements and priorities for a new or improved system. There are few types of requirements like user requirements, client requirements, business requirements, arrangement requirements, interface requirements, and technical requirements (functional and non functional). A Functional Requirement is a requirement that, when satisfied, will allow the
user to perform some kind of function. A Non-Functional Requirement is usually some form of constraint or restriction that must be considered when designing the solution.

Customer will be able to print the list of available bus
Time taken to loading the website will be lesser.
Customer will be able to view the promotions and discounts.
Quality attributes of the system
Customers will be able to check the bus details, prices.
Function performed based on business needs
Calculations of the charges and the reimbursements are to be implemented by the application alone. All the transactions made are secured using SSL protocol as the minimum requirement. Customer can be sent their feedback to agency via system

The system can process 15,000 tickets booking per hour.
Customer can print out their tickets from the system.
Customer can operate major functions without training or assistance. Customer has to download and install the system once in their device after the registration. System will automatically update when customer open the system application.



Level-0 DFD
















Coach company



Once the customers register his/her personal details on the website, customer has to download the system application from the website. After install, it will be automatically synchronize and update to the device, such as customer data, bus information, prices, and discounts rate. So, it will convenient and easy to use.

This is the welcome page and the customer name will be displayed on the top left of system. Customer also can drop their feedback by clicking the brown color button on the bottom left of the application.

This is where the customer will search for the available bus for their journey.

This page will provide the available bus list, so the customer can choose by his/her own depends on the suitable time for them.

After customer choose the bus, he/she can reserve the seat by their own

This is the booking summary page which that makes sure all the information is whether correct or not. If no, they can cancel the booking.

This is the payment page, where customer can make their payment.

This is the reservation report page. Furthermore, customer has to print their tickets at here.


Software testing is the process of evaluation a software item to detect differences between given input and expected output. Also to assess the feature of A software item. Testing assesses the quality of the product. Software testing is a process that should be done during the development process. In other words software testing is a verification and validation process.


System testing is actually a series of different tests whose sole purpose is to exercise the full computer based system. System testing falls under the black box testing category of software testing. White box testing is the testing of the internal workings or code of a software application. In contrast, black box or system testing is the opposite. System testing involves the external workings of the software from the user’s perspective.


Testing in which modules are combined and tested as a group. Modules are typically code modules, individual applications, client and server applications on a network, etc. Integration Testing follows unit testing and precedes system testing.


Functional and reliability testing in an engineering environment. Producing tests for the behavior of components of a product to ensure their correct behavior prior to system integration.


Welcome page
Test Case
Expected Result
Actual Result
Click on “Enter”
Goes to the schedule form
As Expected

Test Case
Expected Result
Actual Result
Click on “Home”
Go back to the welcome page
As Expected
Click on “Exit”
Exit the program
As Expected

Test Case
Expected Result
Actual Result
Enter the journey details, departure and return time, date, cabin selection, bus selection, currency and number of passenger. Click Search Data successfully recorded. Goes to the next form seats.
As Expected

Schedule Result
Test Case
Expected Result
Actual Result
Select a bus from the schedule result. Click next
Goes to the next form seats.
As Expected

Test Case
Expected Result
Actual Result
Select a seat. Click Next
Data successfully recorded. Goes to the next form details.
As Expected

Booking Summary
Test Case
Expected Result
Actual Result
All details will appear in order to wait confirmation.
Data confirmation. Goes to the next form payment.
As Expected
Click on “cancel”
Goes back to schedule form
As Expected

Test Case
Expected Result
Actual Result
Fill in payment card details. Click proceed
Data verification. Goes to the next form Report.
As Expected
Click on “cancel”
Goes back to booking summary form
As Expected

Test Case
Expected Result
Actual Result
All data is ready to be printed
Data successfully entered into the database
As Expected


The implementation phase is described as those activities that begin when the system design has been completed. These phases are producing software code according to plan, analysis and system design that have been done. Coding and debugging is the act of creating the final system. The requirements documentation should be referred to throughout the rest of the system development process to ensure the developing project aligns with the needs and requirements or scope. The system also is tested to evaluate its actual functionality in relation to expected or intended functionality. In order to have a computerized system, MRT Agency would have to buy some hardware and software equipment’s to support the new system. Below are the necessary hardware requirements: Necessary Hardware:

I. Acer Desktop Computer
II. IBM System x3100 M4
III. Microsoft wireless desktop 2000 Keyboard & Mouse
IV. TP-Link DSL-520B Modem Routers
V. Epson DFX-9000 A3 Mono Dot matrix
VI. TM Unifi

The letter ‘P’ from the first letter of P.I.E.C.E.S stands for Performance. It provides the ability of system can be done and provides the effectiveness for business. Performance is a very important key factor in business as it provides enough sufficient throughput and response time. After conducting an investigation, we had received some feedback from the customers complaining about some of the services which make them disappointed. The service is poor in terms of receiving and taking down orders. As the MRT Bus Agency is using the manual method to record down the customer details and booking details, at times it is hard to find back the selected information. There are a lot of papers work needs to be encompassed so it is incredible and time consuming, it makes a lot of wastages seized locale and cause many errors such as data redundancy. With a computerized system that we are proposing, it would be much efficient to the company and customers would be contented with the services provided by MRT Bus Agency. Besides that, MRT Bus Agency doesn’t have an online bus reservation system website. If customers would want to book their seats, it would be impossible as MRT Bus Agency doesn’t have a computerized system. With our proposed system, customers will be able to view the select bus and seats by their own.

The letter ‘I’ from the second letter of P.I.E.C.E.S stands for Information. Information hereby means that the system generated is useful and accurate. In other words, it means that the system can run the information accurately and in an efficient way. MRT Bus Agency admin say that human errors are taking place while storing data in the manual way. Besides that, the data recovery and back up for every transaction that happens, it is hassling them in a way that when a customer calls back to request on changing their booking made, the staff have to put the customer on hold and run through a quantity of files to find their specific booking and make changes to it. This is time consuming. With implementing the new proposed system, the data will be stored systematically in the system database, which means the requested information can easily be retrieved into a relevant format. Apart from it, the data stored in the system would be secured, accurate, and easy to access compared to the current manual system. The system would be able to automatically generate sales report so that it would be easy for the manager to check back on the transactions that happen. Adding to it, customer would be able to cancel and make new booking if they want to.

The letter ‘E’ from the third letter of P.I.E.C.E.S stands for Economic. MRT Bus Agency economic shows the analysis whether the cost of current system is cost effectiveness and it is an affordable cost for the company. In the current system, there are some weaknesses about the inconsistency with the cost as the current (manual) system cannot make use of the resource to the maximum. If the new proposed system is implemented, these costs can be effectively reduced. Since the computerized booking system is able to replace most of the manual work, it will cut down a great number of man power needed, time, the stationary, and salaries of reduced workers. Because of the accuracy and consistency of the data provided by the system, it helps to avoid from unpredicted errors that can cause high cost of the recovery
for the errors.

The letter ‘C’ from the third letter of P.I.E.C.E.S stands for Control. It has the meaning of how a system can manage the information, secures the information that has been store in their database and how a system provides fraud cases from. A good computerized system should able to help the owners to prevent from hacking, viruses attack and fraud cases by providing a better security system. Currently in the system, the level of security and control is low since the storage of data is facing the issue of loss and the stored data will be inconsistent in separate files which cause by redundantly stored. With the new computerized system, the security will be much better as important data and information can be easily stored inside different types of electronic devices. In order to solve these issues, certain measure of control must be taken within the system. With the help of powerful security features such as user name and password databases are made inaccessible by unauthorized persons and viruses. Some patrolling programs are embedded inside the system for checking the inconsistency or irregularity of the system and its data.

The letter ‘E’ from the third letter of P.I.E.C.E.S stands for Efficiency. It explains that MRT Bus Agency needed an automated system to run her business smoothly. The ability of the system to make use of full current resources so that the business can run smoothly. Besides that, records must easily to open to save time so that MRT Bus Agency won’t clash with other customer booking. Along with that, the system has to accessible for the staff so that they able to perform their task without any problems.

The MRT Bus Agency current manual system does not provide reliable service. But there are no worries. The new system that we have designed and provided, solve all problems. The new mode of operation, provide reliable service. The new system, provide online services for the customers. By creating a data base for particulars of customers to be recorded. Each of the customers could have an account in new MRT Online Bus Reservation system. For a booking, system could show the customers whether the bus is available for their journey time or not to them. Besides that, we can put an option for customers, to choose seats by their own. And all details of the customer will be saved in new system. Also, there will be report generated for their payment and also customer can print out their tickets from the system. The membership for the online services is free.The new system actually provides better and easier access for both side customer and business. At beginning for build the system there might be some costs but in the future, this system would help to run business in the most benefited way.


MRT Online Bus Reservation System is company online system, which enable customer to check availability bus ticket, buy bus ticket, and pay bus ticket online. It makes the customer easy to get bus ticket online instead of queue up to buy the bus ticket. The online system is new in Malaysia. Other’s company can use this idea to develop another system to easy their customer to buy bus ticket. Since Malaysia is a developing country, concept electronic ticket or e-ticket should be widely applied in all the sector industries.

Cite this Introduction to software engineering

Introduction to software engineering. (2016, Jul 13). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/introduction-to-software-engineering/

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