Fingerprint technology is a part of biometric technology that is made to recognize special characteristics of an individual. Basically it involves an individual’s fingerprint, where those minute raised ridges on our volar pads are called ‘friction ridge skin’ is special from one person to another. For this reason fingerprints are able to be used as a form of personal identification as it is reliable and accurate. No one would have to remember passwords, PIN numbers or even carry keys or cards, which could avoid many kinds of unwanted problems.
The uniqueness or speciality of these finger prints can be categorized into Global Ridge Pattern and the Local Ridge Patterns. For the Global Ridge Patterns, there are four classifications of fingerprints: [ REF : http://www. techsvg. com/biometrics-technology. html, http://encyclopedia. jrank. org/articles/pages/6556/Biometric-Technologies. html ] While for the Local Ridge Pattern ( also known as minutiae or points of identification ) are unique to every individual’s fingerprint.
There are three patterns: History of Fingerprint Technology Sir William Herschel, who was a British officer based in India, can be credited as the first person to practically use fingerprints as a form of identification.
He used the fingerprints and handprints of the natives in place of a signature to sign contracts to prevent any fraudulent conducts. Around the same time, Dr. Henry Faulds who was a Scottish physician working in Japan, published a letter in the journal Nature, 1880 about his observations on the potential of fingerprints to be used as a means of identification.
Faulds was the one that pioneered the research in fingerprinting that was done in a broad scope. He explained how fingerprints can be used to capture criminals and even describe a method of taking down fingerprints using black ink. This theory of his was put to used and managed to be proven, when he was able to solve a minor crime during that time. This was further carried on by Sir Francis Galton, where he published a book called Finger Prints, 1892.
Galton’s studies showed how individualistic and persistent the friction ridge skin were and this provided actual proof to support the underlying scientific principles of fingerprint identification. During this time Sir Edward Henry, who was in India, was in contact with Sir Francis Galton and discovered that there are limitations with the classification of fingerprint and determined that a simpler method is required to properly file and use this fingerprint records. This led to a system being created in 1897 by Sir Henry himself and also two of his assistants, Haque and Bose.
The classification system put into action by the Indian government and made it as an official means to identify criminals. The success achieved in India was a driving force to the use of fingerprint technology as England and Wales implemented fingerprinting identification system and also establishing the Fingerprint Bureau at New Scotland Yard. In the United States, it began when the New York Civil Service Commission(1902) and New York State Penitentiary System(1903) used fingerprints for civil and criminal identification.
It soon became a standard use in the United States and other parts of the world. A national repository for fingerprints was established along with the Identification Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI) in 1924. Fingerprint technology was also used to help identify victims or a crime leading to more clues and reasons to why it happened. Fingerprinting technology has evolved and used in different areas since then.
Cite this Introduction to the Fingerprint Technology
Introduction to the Fingerprint Technology. (2017, Mar 12). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/introduction-to-the-fingerprint-technology/