Japan, Russia, Mexico and Nigeria: A comparison of countries - Comparison Essay Example

Japan, Russia, Mexico and Nigeria: A comparison of countries

These four countries all bear one thing in common which is the attempt of modernization due to a political rise.  Russia, Nigeria and Mexico all bear one thing in common which is the fact that their economies are poor and need much repair to gain stability.  Unlike eachother, they are poor for different reasons.  Russia is poor due to the debt incurred \to other countries during a time that they were under different leadership.  Since this time, they have been able to gain stability from their natural resources, and use this stability to strongly reduce their debts with these countries. However; this has left them in a state of poverty that will take much more to help them get up and build a strong system.  They have lived off poverty as a country, and the people are use to this.

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            Nigeria is poor due to the lack of financial management. Like Russia they have gained their funding from exporting of their goods. One difference is that they have been able to utilize their own resources which have created a decrease in the need to purchase items from other countries. These two factors combined have contributed to financial success. However; without any formal type of management for these funds, they remain confused, and poor as a country. Unlike Russia, they have ideas for business development, but lack the funds to do so due to lack of financial planning. Russia is still searching for opportunities in this area.

            Mexico is similar to Russia and Nigeria in the area that their economy is also lacking formal planning of financial funds. However; they are also lacking formal government to help to rebuild their economy. Due to this they are in fear of losing their country especially since the value of their money has decreased.  I feel that out of these three countries, Mexico is in far more danger.  Similar to Russia, and to Nigeria, they are plentiful in agriculture which helps them to survive off their own resources, and also provides exports to other countries. One strength that they have over Russia and Nigeria is that they have more opportunity for Fair Trade which contributes to a larger export business than that of the other three countries.

            In studying Japan, I have found that their country is different than Russia, Nigeria and Mexico in the way that they do not lack formal government. They do hold one thing in common with the other three countries in the fact that they are poor as a country however; their poverty is due to their own over consumption.

Political Party Systems

Japan

            Japan does not have a president, yet they have an Emperor.  The government is like Russia as it has a multiparty system including a Legislative, Judiciary, and Executive powers.  Like Russia, the Legislative system includes two parts, of which are: The House of Councilors and the House of Representatives.

            The Emperor and the Legislative branch determine the judge of the Judiciary branch. As with Russia, a court system is in place however; the courts do not make any decisions or rule a court judgment. Instead, they are merely for interpretation of the laws.

The government controls the executive power. With the Judiciary branch is an independent branch.  Japan has a constitution which defines the Emperor of the state as the “head of the state” as does the Russian Constitution with Russia. A difference here is that the Emperor of the state does not really have any influence on power over the country.  However; like Russia there is a Prime Minster, who holds the power in Japan.

Russia

During the time that Russia was in part with the Soviet Union, the government ran the country which consisted of the President of Russia, along with the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. This was a multi system party which changed due to Historical crisis in 1991 when this country separated itself from the Soviet Union, and two years later in 1993 a new constitution was created.

 The problem was that the constitution from 1978 did not provide enough power to the president. While the president was an active voice, there was still much room for by laws, and the Prime Minister of Russia was in charge of looking over the country.    Of course, at which time, there were many opposers due to the long history of previous ran politics in their country under the rulings of their individual leaders.

            The goal for these changes was to stabilize the economy and build a better country.  The problem was that the government consisted of two different branches, executive and legislative which both opposed each other’s efforts.  This was a main issue which the president of Russia who proposed the changes, had to use war within their country to solve these issues.

            The new constitution defined authority in Russia, not to one leader, but to three branches including: legislative, executive and judicial. It also made the President responsible for the country.  Additionally, any laws that are created have to go through the public prior to becoming a law, much different from their old legislature. This is very different from old views. In the old views, the leader decided what the laws were and they were expected to be followed.

            The executive branch holds the president and the Prime Minister however; another primary difference is that the President holds greater power over the Prime Minister in this branch.  An election is held for presidency. Much like the United State, the president may only be in term of office for four years, and only be elected twice in a row.

            The Legislative branch includes the “upper house” and “lower house” involving The Federal Assembly which previously existed however with two separate parties, the Federation Council and the State Duma.

            The Judicial branch is the Ministry of Justice, who created has the responsibility of creating courts and appointing judges. Much like the United States, Russia, has become a country that is in favor of providing a criminal case trial and making judgment after holding a trial. This is to protect human rights and to provide assurance that the laws of the country are being withheld.

Nigeria

            In Nigeria, the President is both the Head of State and Head of Government. The president is elected similar to the United States.   As with Japan and Russia, the government is a multi party government in which there is an Executive branch of government and Legislative branch of government.  Unlike Japan and Russia there is not a Judiciary branch.  There is a House of representative and a Senate, like the United States. This is the two part Legislative system similar to Japan and Russia.

            The Executive branch has 27 ministries, one for each of the following:  “Agriculture and Rural Development, Aviation, Commerce, Communication, Co-operation and Integration, tourism and culture, defense, education, environment, finance, foreign affairs and health, housing and urban development, industries, information and national orientation, inter governmental affairs, internal affairs, justice, labor and productivity, police, petroleum resources, science and technology, power and steel, solid minerals, sports, transport, water resources, women affairs and works”.

            The Legislative branch has two chambers, as does Japan and Russia. Including the House of representative and Senate, which members are elected for a four year term. The Judicial branch has the court ruling authority over the country.

            The Legal system includes four different law branches: “english law, common law, constitutional law and sharia law”. English law pertains to the past, where Sharia law is only used in “Hausa and Muslim”.

            Up until 1999 the Nigerian Army ruled the country, which is similar to that of Russia in the fact that the government or ruler of their country enforced the laws by military actions.  Also similar to Russia, this ended in the 90’s at which time; a new approach to government began to take place.

Mexico

            Mexico unlike Japan, Russia and Nigeria, lacks having a federal system. The country does have a president, of which is voted for by the people. Yet there is an issue with electoral votes, in the fact that it is not a clean process.  The voting process including acceptance of votes from “those from the grave”. Also, it appears that the ballot boxes have been stolen in the past to take votes of the parties that were to go against their chosen candidates.   This is one of many problems that their country faces as far as government is concerned.

             The country is ruled by a president, which is the executive branch of government. The Executive branch is also ruled by the president of Mexico.  The president is the “head of state” and the “head of the military”. The Legislative branch consists of the government and “the Congress of the Union”.

Economic Challenges

Japan

Japan has been facing economic challenges since the later 1990’s due to a decline in their economy. There main reliant source of economic stability was chemical resources, where in the later 90’s faced some challenges.  With this in mind, they turned to a new source, the manufacturing of IT equipment to put their emphasis in resources.  This has been a steady climb for their country and it appears are helping them come out of the red. However; there are other issues that are present, which must be solved in order to ensure stability.

            The Prime Minister of Japan is researching solutions to help their economy get out of debt. The country as a whole has borrowed more money than they are able to pay back. Other issues affecting their economy are “trade and exchange and capital investment” These three factors have put Japan into a state of “deflation”.

            Proposed solutions by the Prime Minister on this issue is to put more emphasis on small business, and “private sectors” This would help to boost the economy. While this will not solve the issue of too much personal debt, it would help to put money back into the economy.  This is one of many solutions being considered since 2001 by the Prime Minister.

            The trade industry as with the United States and with Europe is a viable solution to assist Japan in rebuilding their economy. Their country can also benefit from strengthening their export business, which constitutes

Russia

            Russia’s main export is oil, with a supply greater than that in Iraq.  Prior to this being their main supply, they were reliant on manufacturing industry. This includes items that were found of better quality in other countries, which caused them to lose these products. These products included: airplanes, cars, and war equipment.

            Their country appears to have the opposite problem of Japan. Where Japan has a problem with over compution and debts, Russian’s have been living off barely anything.  It appears that their economy has took an incline since 1999, increasing the amount of wages per person, estimated at “2000 a year”, which seems amble compared to the “2.00 a day” that people were living off ten years ago in their country.  Japan’s debt is internal and is growing day by day due to overconsumption. Russia does hold some debt currently which is due to past economic structure. However; since the turn of the decade, they have slowly been resolving these debts which has put them into a state of repayment.  This is the primary difference in economic conditions between Japan and Russia. Japan is still researching and developing ways to get themselves out of debt. Where Russia has taken control of their oil industry and that advantage has put them into a boost of their economy, on their way to much larger stability.

            Since 1900 many leaders had plans to modernize Russia, however; the wars that took place, put their country deeper into poverty, and soon communism was lost which activated “some of the educated Jews to migrate to Israel”. This was a loss to Russia considering these people would have been able to help rebuild their country.

Nigeria

            Nigeria’s resource is oil, and their economy has been increasing revenue due to the increase in oil prices in the last seven years. Other resources of Nigeria are agriculture, minerals and telecommunication.  Their country is taken an adverse direction from that of Japan and Russia, which is to be reliant on their resources versus using them as exports.  This has helped Nigeria tremendously. The agriculture that they hold has allowed them to rely less on imports from other countries, and is helping them become self sufficient in some area’s.  Due to this, they have been able to dramatically decrease the amount of debt that they owe to other countries.

            Although Nigeria has less debt to others than Japan and Russia, they still face economic issues.  Their main economic issue at this time is lack of financial organization. It appears that a large percentage of Nigerian’s do not have any funding for their business. They have a lack of banks. They have a lack of management of their economy. The lack of financial funding and lack of banks are both contributing factors to the roadblocks set forth for those interested in starting a new business.  This is a huge problem.

            In order to grow as a country, Nigeria needs to have a clear vision on how they are going to increase business, and revenues. Having an idea, without any funding, or organization is not profitable to their country.  Their economy is poor due to lack of financial management. They have earned so many billions of dollars in the oil industry yet; have not utilized their full potential with these funds.  Japan has the resources, and are overusing them, and putting their own country into debt.  Russia and Nigeria are in debt to other countries, for the imports that they had to receive on a multitude of products.

            Their economy unlike Japan and Russia is on the edge of a revolution considering the many accomplishments that they have made to strengthen themselves and earn revenue. The revolution will begin when they start managing their money.

Mexico

            As a third world country, Mexico is very poor. The lack of an organized government to provide stability is the main cause to this.  However; things took a turn for the worse a decade ago when the Paso was devaluated.  One third of the value of the Paso was taken away, which added fire to a nation that was already in trouble.

            Mexico’s population is responsible for earning their own funds due to the resources that they have available. Without any formal government system, to assist their civilians, they are forced to make their own economy.  In doing so, the people create goods such as food, crafts, and cultural items to sell on the streets, in their own stores, and to patrons who visit.

            Mexico’s structure is similar to that of Russia in the fact that Russia is still developing systems to help rebuild their country. One similarity however is that Russia is strong in the funds obtained from their exports.  Mexico uses the export business to assist their country also yet they have not gained even a percentage of the benefits that Russia has gotten from this, which is very poor considering their country is in the same state of lack of direction.

            Mexico’s strongest asset is that of the North American Fair Trade Agreement.  They also have many other agreements pertaining to Fair Trade which strongly assists their economy in being able to export their goods.  Goods are exported from Mexico from other countries due to the cost of items. Since their economy is poor, they are willing to take less money for their goods, and this is advantageous to other countries such as the United States.

Prospects for improving economic conditions

            The prospects of improving economic conditions in Japan are at their finger tips. Their culture is strong. Their people are intelligent and they are able to produce many resources that are of value to other countries. Yet in order to improve their economy. They need to take care of their debt problem.

            My recommendation is to stop accumulating unnecessary debt. They are needed to stabilize their economy by utilizing their resources in technology. They should take the approach of Mexico in trying to create more Fair Trade Agreements. Other countries strive to be as strong in technology as Japan.  Yet, their technology is what has helped their country gain tremendous debt due to the fact it has caused their way of life to be reliant on having the “latest and greatest” versus being satisfied with the progress that they have made.  Turning their point of view would benefit their country the most.

            Nigeria’s opportunity to stabilize their economy is to maintain control. They have helped themselves by utilizing their own resources. They have also created exports of their natural resources which have helped them.  Their next step, I feel is to create some financial planning and resources.  Considering that their exports are in demand as well, they like Japan would benefit from creating more Fair Trade.

            Mexico, a role model for Fair Trade has many opportunities to improve their economy. They have the resources in other countries to create a stronger demand for their products and to increase revenue by utilizing more Fair Trade.  They have similar needs to that of Nigeria, in the area of financial planning. However; they need to take after Russia and create a government that wants to help rebuild their economy and ensure stability. They are a country that holds much great potential especially being so close to the United States. The one factor that is slowing them down is lack of management.

            Nigeria and Mexico lack management, only in two different areas.  Nigeria lacks financial management. While Mexico lacks government.  Japan is like Russia in the way that they accumulated a lot of debt. Take it Russia has found a way to get themselves out of debt and are doing so. The primary difference lies here in their culture. Japan is accustom to being number one in technology which as taught them that they have to have the best and the greatest. Russia is used to being poor and therefore; their people are happy with what they have and grateful for it.

References

“Politics of Russia.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 30 Dec 2006, 19:34 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 30 Dec 2006 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Politics_of_Russia&oldid=97384123>.

“Politics of Japan.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 25 Dec 2006, 12:19 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 31 Dec 2006 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Politics_of_Japan&oldid=96406613>

“Politics of Nigeria.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 26 Nov 2006, 11:44 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 31 Dec 2006 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Politics_of_Nigeria&oldid=90204253>.

“Politics of Mexico.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 24 Dec 2006, 14:26 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 31 Dec 2006 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Politics_of_Mexico&oldid=96274431>.

Hiromasa Yonekura. “Vital Speeches of the Day”. New York: Jan 15: 2004. Vol. 70. Iss. 7: pg. 213

Seymour W. Itzkoff.  “The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies”. Washington: Summer 2004. Vol. 29, Iss. 2; pg. 211, 13 pgs

“Nigeria at 46: how has the economy flared” by: Alas A. Galadima, retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com, on December 31, 2006-12-31

David Merchant, Paul Rich.  Policy Studies Journal. Urbana: Nov 2003. Vol. 31, Iss. 4; pg. 661

“Mexico.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 30 Dec 2006, 20:37 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 31 Dec 2006 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mexico&oldid=97395223>.

 

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