JOB DESIGN, ANALYSIS & EVALUATION What is a Job? • A unit in an organisation structure that remains unchanged whoever is in the job • A job consists of a related set of tasks that are carried out by a person to fulfill a purpose • Role – the part people play in carrying out their work FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DESIGN • Process of Intrinsic Motivation • Characteristics of Task Structure • Motivating Characteristics of Jobs JOB DESIGN DEFINED “The specification of the contents, methods & relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological & organisational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder.
” (Davis, 1996) AIMS OF JOB DESIGN • To satisfy the requirements of the organisation for productivity, operational efficiency & quality of product or service • To satisfy the needs of the individual for interest, challenge & accomplishment. APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN Influence skill variety, provide opportunities for people to do several tasks & combine tasks • Influence task identity, combine tasks & form natural work units • Influence task significance, form natural work units & inform people of the importance of their work • Influence autonomy, give people responsibility for determining their own working systems • Influence feedback, establish good relationships & open feedback channels.
Techniques in Job Design • • • • • Job Rotation Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Self Managing Teams High Performance Work Design JOB ANALYSIS ‘The procedure for determining the duties & skill requirements of a job & the kind of person who should be hired for it”. (Dessler, 2002) • “…(P)rocess of collecting, analysing & setting out information about the content of jobs in order to provide the basis for a job description & data for recruitment, training, job evaluation & performance management. (Armstrong, 1999) JOB ANALYSIS • Produces the following information – – – – – – – Overall purpose of the job Job content Accountabilities Performance Criteria Responsibilities Organisational factors Environmental Factors
Uses of Job Analysis Information • • • • • Recruitment & Selection Compensation Performance Appraisal Training Discovering unassigned duties Steps in Job Analysis • Step 1 – decide how you will use the information • Step 2 – Review relevant background information such as organisation charts and other relevant data • Step 3 – Select representative positions • Step 4 – Analyse the job • Step 5 – Verify the job analysis information • Step 6 – Develop a job description & job specifications. Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information • • • • • Interview Questionnaires Observation Participant Diary/Logs Position Analysis Questionnaire U. S. Department of Labour Procedure JOB DESCRIPTION DEFINED • “A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities. ” (Dessler, 2002) Job Description • Derived from job analysis • Provides basic information about the job under the headings of: – – – – Job Title Reporting Relationships Overall Purpose Principal accountabilities or main tasks or duties Job Descriptions can be used for: Defining the place of the job in the organisation & to clarify for job holders & others the contribution the job makes to achieving organisational or departmental objectives • Provide information to produce person specifications for recruitment • Forms the basis of the contract of employment • Provide the framework for setting objectives for performance management • Forms the basis for job evaluation and the grading of jobs. JOB SPECIFICATION DEFINED • “A list of a job’s ‘human requirements,’ that is, the requisite education, skills, personality…” (Dessler, 2002)
DEJOBBING • “Broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs, & encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job description” (Dessler, 2002) – Flatter Organisations (fewer managers – Work teams (organisation of tasks around teams & processes) – Boundaryless organisation – Reengineering – fundamental rethinking & radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures such as cost, quality, service and speed. JOB EVALUATION DEFINED “ (A) systematic process for establishing the relative worth of jobs within an organisation” (Armstrong, 1999) • It is not a science, more of an art. It is a process that can reduce subjectivity, but it relies on human judgement PURPOSES OF JOB EVALUATION • Provide a rational basis for the design & maintenance of an equitable & defensible pay structure • Help in the management of the relatives existing between jobs within the organisation • Enable consistent decisions to be made on grading & rates of pay • Establish the extent to which here is comparable worth between jobs so that equal pay can be provided for work of equal value. Key Features of Job Evaluation • A comparative approach – it deals with relationships not absolutes • A judgemental process – requires the exercise of judgement in interpreting data on jobs; comparing one job to another • Analytical process – based on informed facts gathered from job analysis • Structured process – a framework is provided which aims to help evaluators METHODOLOGY Job Ranking • Job Classification • Point Factor rating POINT FACTOR RATING • Analytical method of job evaluation • Based on the breaking down of jobs into factors or key elements • It is assumed that each factor is a part of all the jobs to be evaluated, but to different degrees • Using numerical scales, points are allocated to a job under each factor according to the degree to which it is present in the job. • Built on a factor plan consisting of the choice of factors to be used, factor rating scales, and factor weighting.
Choice of Factors • Factor – a characteristic that occurs to a different degree in the jobs • Normally have between 3 & 12 • Normally grouped under 3 headings – Inputs (knowledge & skills & other personal characteristics required) – Process (characteristics of the work that determine the demands made by the job on job holders; includes aspects such as mental effort, problem solving, judgement, initiative) – Outputs (contribution or impact the job holder can make on end-results) Typical List of Factors • • • • Knowledge & Skills (input) Responsibility (output) Decisions (process) Complexity (process) Interpersonal Skills (process) FACTOR RATING SCALES • Consist of definitions of the levels at which the factor can be present in any jobs to be evaluated. • Jobs are analysed in terms of these factors & the result of this analysis is compared with the factor level definitions to establish the factor level. FACTOR WEIGHTING • The factor plan involves making decisions on the relative importance of the various factors – I. . their weighting for scoring purposes. Advantages of Point Factor System • Acceptable in equal value cases • Adapt well to computerisation • Provide a rationale which helps in the design of graded pay structures • Perception of fairness and equity • Helps to achieve some degree of objectivity & consistency in making judgements • Forced to consider a range of factors, thus preventing over-simplification in judgements as is the case in non-analytical methods Disadvantages of Point Factor System Complex to develop, install & implement • Gives a spurious impression of scientific accuracy • Assumes that it is possible to quantify different aspects of jobs on the same scale of values & then add them together. Skills cannot necessarily be added together in this way. • Based on the assumption that the factor weightings in the scheme apply equally to all jobs. It can be argued that each job will have its own pattern of factor weights. Skills-Based Evaluation • Grades jobs according to the level of skills or expertise required to perform them. (eg.
Grades may be related to NVQ levels) • Focuses on individuals & the inputs they are capable of providing. • Problem – implies that skills are rewarded even when they are not delivering results. Competence-Based Evaluation • Also focuses on people • Measures the size of jobs by reference to the level of competence required for their successful performance • Also fails to assess contribution, but this pitfall could be overcome by incorporating performance standards in the definitions of competency levels, bearing in mind that competence is essentially the ability to apply knowledge and skills successfully.
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Job Design, Analysis & Evaluation. (2016, Oct 26). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/job-design-analysis-evaluation/