Joseph's Story Essay - Part 2

A)Joseph hasn’t been treating his body very good - Joseph's Story Essay introduction. He has been eating fatty foods and gaining weight. He’s spending more time at work, adding stress and getting less sleep. Joseph has recently started smoking again after quitting for just a few years. The weight gain and fatty foods contribute build up on the inner arterial walls, decreasing the blood flow to the heart and other tissues. When the lack of blood flow occurs the amount of oxygen, blood glucose, and waste removal are greatly deprived from those tissues. Stress and lack of sleep reduce the immune system’s ability to fight of antigens. Some people choose unhealthy ways of stress relief. In Joseph’s case he has started smoking again

B)Oxygen and glucose are the main sources of energy in the cell. When there is a lack of oxygen and glucose our body automatically transfers from aerobic to anaerobic glycolysis to try to keep ATP available for active transport to maintain homeostasis inside the cell for as long as possible to reduce cell death. The cell works hard to maintain pH levels, carbon dioxide levels, and the sodium potassium pump to help prevent death of the cell or tissue.

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C)Lysosomes membranes as part of their structure which have active transport pumps to help maintain the acidic interior to the lysosome because lysosome enzymes work their best at acidic levels. So when the membrane starts to break down and the lack of waste disposal increases intracellular pH levels the lysosomes basically engulf the cell and the cell self-destructs.

D) A persons mitochondrial DNA is the site of predetermined genetic disposition in Joseph’s case this is where his family history of vascular disease is already determined in his body. RNA helps the body repair itself and make new proteins. These are both originally found in the nucleus of the cell. The genes in the nucleus are what determine the cell structure and function already determined by past family genes. You get half from your mother and the other half from your father.

E)Any active or facilitated protein that requires ATP. Sodium potassium pump is very important to the heart because the heart muscle contracts and releases so often. When there is not enough ATP for this pump to do its job the heart could contract and not release or visa-versa. F)CPR was helpful to keep some oxygen flow to the organs and tissues. The lack of oxygen kills a cell which kills the tissues the cells make up. Once heart muscle tissue has died it cannot repair itself or function ever again, it is scarred for the rest of your life. So the faster oxygen flow is reestablished the less permanent damage and a better Joseph’s chances of a full recovery.

G)In order for Joseph to reduce the risk of another heart attack he should consider a healthier low fat, lower cholesterol diet with added exercise. It would be great if he could cut back on his work schedule and take a little more time for relaxation and sleep. Joseph should definitely quit smoking again, and don’t start back up. Finally he should talk to his doctor about the family history of vascular disease and possibly get a preventative medication.

H)Joseph’s heart failed due to arterial blockage of blood flow, which caused a lack of oxygen, glucose and waste disposal. The lack of oxygen and glucose slow down the available ATP, affecting the contractibility of the heart muscles, which puts out less blood flow to the organs which in return provides even less of the essential nutrients.

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