ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to express our sincere gratitude to everyone who assisted us in making this industrial training successful. In particular we would like to thank P. S Thomas (Executive Engineer), Pramod Kumar ( Assistant Exe. Engineer),who directed us all along the training period. We also thank other staff and trainees for their support and guidance. We express our heartfelt gratitude to Thampirajan C. R, Project Manager who allowed us to use the facilities in KDPP, Nallalam INTRODUCTION KDPP is the second diesel power generating station of Kerala state electricity board.
The first project is BDPP at Ernakulam. There are 8 no of generators installed in this plant and each has a capacity of 16MW. Total capacity is 128MW. Diesel engine is the prime mover of the alternator generating voltage of each alternator is 11 KV. 2 alternators are synchronized and connected in parallel in common bus bar through independent VCB at MV room and is connected to generator transformer of capacity 38 MVA, 1lkV/1l0kV. Thus there are 4 no. of GT’s provided for eight engines and on service and another GT is provided for a spare at generator transformer yard . DIESEL GENERATOR HALL
The DG hall houses the entire prime mover alternator set. The prime mover used at KDPP is 18 V 46 C WARTS1LA diesel engines. It is a 4 stroke turbo charged and inter cooled engine with direct twin fuel injection. The engine uses two fuels – primary fuel being LSHS. Diesel is used for starting and stopping purposes. * Cylinder bore :460 mm * Stroke:580 mm * No. of valve :2 inlet& 2 outlets * Cylinder configuration :18 in v form * V-angle:45 * Compression ratio :14:1 * Direction of rotation :clockwise * Cylinder output:1050 kW * Speed:500 rpm * Piston speed :9. 7 m/s Mean effective pressure :26. 1 bar * Firing pressure :200 bar * Charge air pressure:3. 1 bar The engine has 18 cylinders, arranged in two banks with 9 cylinders in each bank. The banks are aligned in V – shape at an angle of 45 degrees. The cylinders have a diameter of 46 cm. The firing order of the engine is given below: A1-B8-A7-B6-A4-B3-A2-B9-A8 B5-A6-B1-A3-B7-A9-B4-A5-B2 The piston reciprocates in these cylinders with a stroke length of 580 cm. each cylinder has a set of valves – inlet valve and exhaust valve and a fuel injection system. A cam mounted on a cam shaft operates these valves.
The cam shaft is coupled to the crank shaft with asset of gears. The profile of the cams is arranged suitably for the perfect timing of the operation of the valves. Cam shaft is composed of a number of cams connected together to form a single shaft. This arrangement provides an economic method for replacement of individual cams during faults. The fuel injection system can be broadly divided into two parts -pressurizing unit and atomizing unit. Pressurizing unit consists of a plunger which reciprocates in a cylinder called barrel. These together forms a fuel pump which pressurize the fuel to about 450 bars.
Atomizing units are nozzles which provide a fine spray of fuels into the cylinder. Two nozzles–main nozzle and pilot nozzle are present in each cylinder. A cam provides the up and down motion of the plunger in the barrel. The speed of the engine is maintained constant even when the load on the alternator varies. This is attained with the help of a governor. It adjusts the fuel input to the cylinder with load, which more fuel is supplied when the load is high and less fuel when the load is low. The quantity of fuel is controlled by providing a helical groove on the plunger.
The relative angular position of the groove with spill pot determines the amount of fuel injected to the cylinder. This angular displacement is obtained by a rack and pinion arrangement. A mechanical over speed trip device is fitted at one end of the cam shaft. A centrifugal force which comes to play at high speeds of the shaft activates the device and the fuel supply is cut off. This device is set for a speed of 565 rpm. A safety valve is provided at the top of the cylinder. It is set for a maximum pressure of 240 bars. To improve the efficiency of the engine a turbocharger is provided which is a turbine- compressor system.
The turbine is driven by the exhaust gas which in turn drives the compressor. Hence the air is compressed to about 3 bars. The compressed air is cooled to maintain a particular temperature using HT water. The turbocharger works at 15000 rpm. For every 150 hrs the turbine is washed which is known as turbo wash. STARTING The starting sequences of the engine are given below 1. Start 2. Blow Through Process 3. Starting air cranks the shaft[ 120rpm] 4. Diesel ignition started[350rpm] 5. Excitation started[5MW -10%. of rated load] 6. LSHS ignition started[7MW] 7. Back field excitation stared
Maximum over speed of the machine is limited such that engine will electrically trip at 555 rpm and if the relay is not operated mechanical tripping occurs at 565 rpm. The signal voltage corresponding to 555rpm is 8. 46 volt. Engine starting conditions * Lube oil inlet pressure > 0. 5 bar * Fuel oil inlet pressure > 2 bar * Starting air pressure > 18 bar * HT water A bank outlet temperature > 50° C * HT water B bank outlet temperature > 50° C * Turning gear disengaged * Mechanical over speed put down inactive * Electric pneumatic stop valve closed * Earthing switch open MCB not open in AVR circuit * Protection relay fault inactive * Breaker trip alarm inactive * Shutdown alarm inactive * Engine stopped * Power plant emergency stop inactive * CFE emergency stop inactive Safety Check Conditions * HT/LT Water:3 bar normal :2 bar alarm :1. 5 bar trip * Lube Oil:4 bar normal :3 bar alarm :2 bar trip * Electrical over speed :555 rpm * Mechanical over speed:565 rpm Running condition of Engine * Charge air :2. 9 bar * Starting air :20. 5 bar * LT water :3. 4 bar * HT water :2. 9 bar * Fuel :0. 2 bar * Lube oil :4. 6 bar * Speed:500 rpm * Ignition pressure:170 bar
ALTERNATOR Alternator (3-phase) is used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The alternator is a synchronous machine which runs at synchronous speed generating 3-phase supply. Rating of alternator used in this plant is 18. 8MVA, 11KV, 0. 8pf, 988A. The winding used is lap winding. Rotating pole is a salient pole type. There are 12 poles. The machine runs at 500 rpm. N= 120f/p P= no of poles=12, N= speed in rpm=500So the voltage produced is of frequency 50Hz. The speed of alternator is low compared with turbo generator, so salient pole rotor is used.
One of the 8 alternators is made by Siemens and others by BHEL. The excitation system used in this plant is brushless excitation. In this system the ac exciter driven by the main synchronous machine has stationary field and rotating armature. The 3-phase power from the ac exciter is fed along the main shaft to the rotating silicon diode 3-phase rectifier mounted on the same shaft. The output from the alternator is also given along the main shaft to the main alternator field without any slip rings and brushes. So this system is called brushless excitation system. Specification of exciter * Input:76V, 9. A * Output:146V, 405 A * RPM:500 * Frequency:66. 7 * Capacity:59. 1 KW * Connection:Star * No. of stator poles:16 * No. of rotor pole:96 * Rotor DC terminal Resistance:0. 5 ohm GENERATING TRANSFORMER Specifications * Type:outdoor * No. of winding per phase:3 * Cooling :ONAF * Rating :38 MVA * Voltage :11/110 KV * Current:1996. 85 A at LV :199. 68 A at HV * Connection :Delta / Star * Tapping:On load * Normal tap position :6 * Make:BHEL STATION TRANSFORMER The 4 ST’s installed in the plant provide the low voltage of 415 for the station purposes. Its capacity is 2000KVA with 11000/415v rating.
There is one standby station transformer MV SWITCH GEAR The MV Switchgear is located in the MV room. In this plant there are 8 generators each producing a voltage of 11KV. There are 4 transformers and one transformer standby. The outputs of 2 generators are connected to a single bus. Thus there are four buses in total (Bus A, Bus B, Bus C, Bus D). For the outputs of the 2 generators to be connected to a bus it must be synchronized,ie the voltage , frequency & phase of each generator output should be same. The bus bar current is 2000 ampere. All these operations are done in MV Switchgear room.
This room mainly consists of circuit breakers . There are different type of circuit breakers, e. g. Vacuum CB, SF6 CB. The main use of CB is to quench the arc that is formed when a conducting line is open circuited. Here we use vacuum CB. The circuit breaker current carrying capacity is 1250 ampere. The output of generators is connected to MV room by cables. They are connected to bus through circuit breakers. Now the bus voltage is 11KV and it has to be stepped up to 110 KV. For this bus is connected to a step up transformer through a circuit breaker. Each generator is grounded through 635 ohm resistor.
This resistance bank is known as Neutral Grounding Resistance [NGR]. For measuring the bus voltage and current there is a potential transformer. The bus is connected to the station transformer through a circuit breaker. The station transformer provides the working voltage for the machines and motors in the plant. There are so many relays such as 1. Trip Circuit Supervision Relay, 2. 0ver Current Relay, 3. Over Fluxing Relay, 4. Earth Fault Relay, Stripping Relay, 6. Definite Time Relay. Lightning Arrester is also provided for protection. LV SWITCH GEAR LV switchgear is located in the LV room.
Low voltage switch gear supplies power to all the motors and machines within the plant. LV switch gear is constituted by a number of buses called MCC (Motor Control Cubicle). Such 14 MCCs are present in the plant. Supply to the MCCs is taken from the station transformers. The MCC works at 440V. Outputs of the four transformers are connected to four different MCCs through Circuit breakers. These MCCs are also interconnected through Circuit breakers. This interconnection helps in providing supply to any of the MCCs if supply is present in at least one MCC. Separate MCCs are present for each engine.
The supply to drive the auxiliary system of each engine is taken from the corresponding MCC. So a total of 8 MCCs are responsible for the supply to the engines. MCC9 is considered as the most important MCC as all the important operations in the plant gets supply from this MCC. Supply to MCC9 is ensured always. A black start generator is connected to MCC9 so that supply can be obtained from it even during a complete blackout of the entire power grid. The operations of the other MCC are given below: * MCC 10 -Lighting purpose * MCC11 -Fuel treatment house * MCC 12 -fire water pump house MCC 13 -water treatment plant * MCC 14 –BPCL BATTERY ROOM In the battery room, there are 55 cells of 2 volts each, giving 110 volt. It has a capacity of 300 Ahrs. It is a float rectifier cum boost charger. The battery supplies the necessary dc voltage for display and lighting purposes at emergency BLACK START DIESEL GENERATOR It is provided to prevent the plant shut down during the grid failure. It is an AC generator Specification of generator are given below. * Rating :500KVA * Voltage :415 * Current :695. 6 * Speed :1500 rpm * Rotor :Salient pole * Excitation:Self excited ac Parallel Operation
Back synchronizing is done as given below. * Speed is increased to get the rated frequency * The synchroscope switch is closed and the governor of the incoming set is adjusted until the pointer of the synchroscope is rotating as slow as possible * Excitation is increased around the rated voltage * As the pointer of the synchroscope approaches the top vertical position when rotating in the clockwise direction, main switch is closed. * The governor is adjusted to take the rated load ENGINE AUXTLLARY SYSTEMS Engine auxiliary systems are necessary for the proper functioning of the Diesel Engine.
Even though the auxiliary system is not a part of the engine, it ensures that all the necessary conditions required for the engine to operate are met. It is provided near by the diesel engine and for each engine a separate auxiliary system is present. The Engine Auxiliary System consists of the following parts: * Fuel system * Lubricating oil system * Compressed air system * Cooling water system * Charge air and exhaust gas system FUEL SYSTEM: FUEL TREATMENT HOUSE The fuel system is the most important auxiliary system of an engine, the fuel being the most necessary criterion for the engine to function.
KDPP uses two types of fuels for the running of the Diesel Engine. The primary fuel is LSI-IS (Low Sulphur Heavy Stock), also named HFO (Heavy Fuel Oil). Diesel is the secondary fuel. It is also termed as LFO (Light Fuel Oil). Correspondingly, the fuel system is divided into two: HFO System and LFO System. LSHS lies among the last products obtained in petroleum refineries. It is a tar like substance having very high viscosity and low pour point. A single engine requires about 3 tone fuels for working one hour. Hence the low cost and low sulphur content of LSHS makes it more prominent in use as a fuel than diesel.
But diesel is used while starting and stopping an engine except during emergency where the engine is stopped with LSHS. While starting, diesel is passed into the engine and after the load reaches 30% of engine capacity of 16 MW (i. e. about 5MW), the fuel is switched to LSHS. Diesel is used when the plant is shut down for along period for maintenance. LSHS is flushed out and diesel is fed in using a selector valve. The use of LSHS here can cause it to clog the pipes as it solidifies unless the temperature is maintained at a critical temperature. HFO system: The fuel used here is provided by Bharath Petroleum Limited (BPCL).
It is pumped to 2 HFO storage tanks, in their yard, by unloading pump unit. Each tank has a capacity of 5OOkl. According to its need KDPP transfers LSHS from the storage tank to HFO buffer tank using a transfer pump through a3-way valve. There are two buffer tanks of capacity 600kl each. The HFO contains a large amount of impurities and it has to be purified before it can be used, hence it is passed through a HFO separator which uses a centrifugal action to clean the fuel off impurities. The fuel is then stored in a HFO day tank. There is 2 Day tank of 300kl capacity each . These HFO day tank contained clean purified fuel ready for use.
The sludge from the HFO separator is collected in a sludge tank and sent for treatment. The HFO feeder pump pumps the fuel to the HFO booster unit at a pressure of around 4 to 5 bar. From here, fuel passes to the fuel oil unit and finally to the engine. 11 HFO FUEL SYSTEM 1. Unloading pump 2. HFO storage tank (2*5000kl) 3. HFO transfer pump 4. HFO buffer tank (2*600kl) 5. HFO separator 6. HFO day tank (2*3000kl) 7. HFO feeder pump 8. HFO booster unit 9. Fuel oil unit 10. Diesel engine 11. Storage tank LFO System: The fuel, which is diesel in this case, is brought by BPCL and stored in their LFO storage tanks using an unloading pump.
There are two storage tanks of 450kl capacity each. The LFO transfer pump pumps diesel to LFO day tank. Purifiers are not necessary here as diesel is a clean fuel. There is no chance of contaminations. The LFO day tank has a capacity of 200kl. The LFO feeder pump supplies LFO to the booster unit and finally to the engine. The Booster unit is an important part of fuel system. There are four booster units, one for two engines. The booster unit starts with a three way change over valve. The two inlets are the LFO &HFO from their respective day tanks . The type of fuel required can be selected using this valve.
The selected fuel is then passed through an auto filter; the impurities up to 300 microns are removed. The fuel then approaches the de aeration vessel were air present in it are removed. The fuel which has to enter the engine requires a pressure of 7-9 bars. Much pressure is lost as the fuel travels from the day tank to the booster unit. A booster pump in the booster unit gives the necessary pressure to the de aerated fuel. The fuel is pumped to steam heaters and then to a viscosity meter. There is a particular range of values of viscosity which the fuel must have for the proper functioning of the engine.
This valve is adjusted by the combined action of steam heaters and viscosity meters. Viscosity of a fuel depends on temperature. As temperature increases viscosity decreases. Thus a proper temperature is given to the fuel to adjust the viscosity. The viscosity of LSHS is 730 CST at 50 degree Celsius and about 80-22 CST at 100-110 degree Celsius. This is the working temperature, viscosity and necessary adjustments are made. The fuel is finally ready for use and is send to the engine as required through the fuel oil unit. LFO FUEL 1. Unloading pump 2. LFO storage tank 3. LFO transfer pump 4. LFO day tank 5. LFO feeder pump . LFO booster unit 7. Fuel oil unit 8. Diesel engine LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM This system is concerned with the lubrication of the engine parts. Lubricating oil used at KDPP is Argins X40 and is of grade SAE 40. It also serves as the coolant for the engine. Lubricating oil is stored in the sump of the engine. The sumo has a capacity of 12kl. For proper working of the engine, the viscosity of the lubricating oil must be in the range of 12 to 19 SCT. The normal working temperature of lubricating oil is 60-70 0C. The quality of lubricating oil is determined by TBN (Total base number) value. For fresh oil it is 40.
When the lubricating oil passes through the engine parts impurities and suspended particles get mixed with it. This reduces the quality of the oil. As a result, the LO has to be filtered from time to time. Filters and separator are used for this purpose. Two types of filters are used: automatic filter (30 micrometer) and safety or fine filter (63 micrometer). Pumps are provided to control the flow of lubricating oil in the engine. A prelube pump ensures that there is sufficient lubricating oil pressure when the engine is started. Another pump maintains the flow of lubricating oil when the engine is running.
If the temperature of the lubricating oil exceeds 54 0C a three way valve redirects the oil flow through a LT cooling system. COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM For small diesel engines a dc motor is used for starling. The diesel engine used at KDPP is started with compressed air. Here, the air used is compressed to a pressure of 13 to 30 bar and is stored in air vessels. This highly compressed air is supplied to the engine for starting it. When this high pressure air enters the cylinder, the piston is pushed downwards. By timing the supply of air to different cylinders, the piston is made to reciprocate within the cylinder.
The timing of air supply to the engine is attained by means of a cam mechanism driven by a shaft coupled with the engine shaft. Compressed air system is also used for sudden stopping of the engine. The high pressure air from the air vessel throws the fuel governor to stop position when the engine is to be stopped suddenly. The compression of air is attained with the help of two compressors. The compressed air is then stored in air vessels nearby the engine. The compressed air system can be broadly divided into two parts: Starting air system: This system is concerned with the starting of the diesel engine.
To start the engine, the air pressure must be well above 18 bars. Thus the air pressure is always maintained in between 18 and 30 bars. This high pressure air is supplied to the engine during starting time. Working air system: This system is concerned with sudden stopping of the engine end controlling of the pneumatic valves at different locations in the plant. The pressure required in the working air system is about 7 to 8 bar. Any fault for this system causes the complete shutdown of the plant as almost all of the valves are controlled by this system and it is required for the emergency operations in the plant.
COOLING WATER SYSTEM As the engine works at high temperature, a cooling system is necessary. At KDPP, the coolant used is water. The cooling system is composed of two sub cooling systems. They are: HT Cooling system: High Temperature cooling system is used for the cooling of parts operating at high temperature. Here HT water is used to avoid the damage when low temperature water is used on hot metal parts. HT cooling is mainly used for cooling if engine parts. HT water is maintained at temperature of about 70 to 95 0C. The usual working temperature is 85 c. hen temperature of water falls below the required limit, a three way valve operates and water flows through a temperature maintaining device. This device maintains the required temperature with the help of steam from the steam system. LT Cooling system: Low temperature cooling system is used for cooling parts whose operating temperatures are low. LT system is used for the cooling of lubricating oil. Here water is maintained at a temperature of 40 to 50 0C. here also a three way valve which operates when the temperature falls below the present value, is used. This valve directs the flow of water to a healer to maintain the temperature.
CHARGE AIR AND EXHAUST GAS SYSTEM The engine is required to deliver power at maximum possible efficiency. The power output of the engine is given by P= PmALN/n, N in rps Thus, the efficiency of the engine can be increased by increasing the mean effective pressure, Pm of the air supplied to engine. This can be attained by increasing the quantity of air sucked into the engine during suction stroke. For this, charge air is provided to the inlet valve during suction stroke. Charge air used has a pressure of 3. 1 bars. At KDPP a compressor is provided for each engine to supply charge air required for that engine.
The compressor is a blower driven by a turbine. The exhaust gas from the engine rotates the turbine and hence the blower also rotates sucking in air from atmosphere through automatic oil bath air filters and then supplies the charged air into the engine. Due to compression, the temperature of air rises. LT water is used to cool the air. Exhaust gas from the engine is at very high temperature. By using this high temperature exhaust gases for other purposes the overall efficiency of the plant can be increased. At KDPP, the exhaust gas from the engine is used for a number of purposes.
Exhaust gas from each engine is used to drive the charge air system of that engine. Steam or the steam system is generated by boilers which use the exhaust gas for boiling water. Such boilers are connected to engines 4, 5 and 8 3 way valve set at 54° c Automatic filter fine filter (63inicron) engine LT water LG separator unit Lubricating Oil System DEMINERALIZING PLANT Water used in the plant should be free from minerals, harmful chemicals since it will lead to corrosion also it poses a threat to safety in the case of boilers. The dematerialized water from the DM plant is mainly supplied to the boiler and floor use.
Demineralization is done using the principle of reverse osmosis. First of all the ground water stored in a tank. Using a reciprocating pump some fixed quantity of NaOH is added to it in order to precipitate the components which will solidify and become a sludge after chemical reaction. For proper mixing of NaOH a blower is used. Sludge is removed and water is stored in a raw water tank. From raw water tank it is pumped to filter namely Iron Remove Filter [IRF]. Then it is passed through dual media filter[DMF]. The output of this unit is fed to catridge filter in which particle sized up to 10 microns are sieved out.
From catridge filter water is passed through softener which contains resins. Then permeate is added to enhance reverse osmosis. Flow meter is used to measure the quantity. Water is again filtered in a Bag filter [5micron] before feeding to the Reverse Osmosis unit [RO]. For reverse osmosis to occur the water should be at high pressure [7bar] for that a multi stage pressure pump is used. RO unit demineralize water completely and for 6 cubic meters, 2. 5 cubic meters DM water and 3. 5 cubic meters reject water is produced. The DM water is stored in a storage tank from which it supplied to the necessary units.
After the passage of 40 cubic meter water the resin which loses its quality has to be regenerated. Regeneration is done using salt water. Reject water is used to backwash IRF. At start backwash is done thrice. WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM 11 1. NaOH 2. Bore well 3. Air pumping 4. Storage tank 5. Iron RF 6. Dual RF 7. Cartridge filters 8. Softeners 9. Softeners 10. Reverse osmosis 11. Tank BOILER UNITS The specifications of the steam rator are given below: * Type: steam 3250 * Output: 2. 17MW * Max. Operation pressure: 1. 3 MPa * Max. Operating temp: 195° C * Min. Operating temp: 0° C * Volume: 0. cubic metres The steam rator is associated with a diesel burner as accessory. Diesel burner provides the necessary heat to the steam boiler. It is a water tube boiler with bent tubes. It is used to provide the steam for feed water, HFO heating. Water is drawn from a tank using a feed pump which is a constant discharge centrifugal pump. The drawn water is then fed to a hydracell- a three diaphragm reciprocating pump with eccentric-pump. Since it is a variable speed machine it regulates the output feed water according to the load. There is a spring loaded safety valve with 13bar operating pressure.
Two pressure gauges for the steam pressure and hydracell water- pressure. A steam separator is used for separating the steam and the condensate. The condensate is then fed to the steam rator. A pressure regulating valve operating at 4 bars is also provided. The range of feed water is 8. 2 -9. 0 pH, which ensures enough alkalinity to prevent corrosion. The working pressure is about 7 bar. Once the diesel engine is started there is no need of steam rator. The exhaust flue gas from the machine is used to produce the required steam in a Exhaust Gas Boiler [EGB] The exhaust gas input to the EGB is controlled by a actuator-damper arrangement.
The actuator used to convert the air energy to mechanical energy. Damper is the exhaust input controller. A circulating water pump provides the required heated water to the EGB. It is a counter flow burner. The steam produced is brought to steam drum where the condensate is separated. The required amount of steam to the DG room is regulated using a consumer valve. The common mounting on the steam drum are safety valve, air vent, soot blow valve, stop valve, water level indicator, blow off cock etc. the exhaust from EGB is released to the atmosphere. CONTROL ROOM The whole plant is controlled -from the control room.
There are 8 control cubicle for each alternator engine set namely CFC1,CFC2…….. CFC8. The details such as voltage generated, power factor, frequency, load current, engine rpm etc for each set is shown in these cubicles display panel. Generator synchronization can be done from the control room. The control system employed is PLC (Program Controlled Logic). All the functions and operations at KDPP are completely automated through the PLC (Programmed Logic Control) system. This is a completely automated system which runs 24 hours and lakes note of all the details concerning the operation of the plant.
PLC used at KDPP is programmed in COCEPT. The PLC system consists of a number of panels which contains modules that are responsible for some functions. The control room in the power plant houses the main panels of the PLC system. Power plant control system consists of a number of sub systems each of which takes care of a specific part of the plant. All subsystems are coordinated by a central system located at the control room. The control system has two parts – one located at the central control panel in the control room and the other part at the location of control i. . near the engine. This part is called Genset control panel. Such a panel is provided for each engine. Each genset section has meters protection relays transducers and operating switches. The genset section is controlled from the control panel. Control of the operation of each genset is done by the control unit located at control panel. Control panel has switches and push buttons for synchronizing equipments and control mimics for the plant MV and LV systems. Engine wise functions can be monitored at the operator’s computer terminal.
The engine panel contains speed controller, speed measuring system, PLC for Genset hardwired switches, engine shutdown and breaker circuits. Engine wise protection relays are located on another panel in addition to those present on the local control panel which are attached to their respective units. All PLCs and WOLS stations are inter connected by dual mode bus +. Exhaust gas and boiler systems also own their own PLC which is also interconnected by dual mod bus. The layout of the PLC system is shown. The sensors and transducers are connected to the input module of the local control panel.
The input module transfers the data to the processor which consists of the logic sensor and program. The output from the processing section is fed into the output module. A single module can accept up to 64000 inputs. A number of such modules are used to handle all the control and coordination operations of the plant. The modules are connected to a back plain. One such back plain contains modules handling inputs, CPU, RIO head or drop and power supply. RIO head is present at the central control panel of each section. To this, lines from RIO drops from each individual panel are connected.
RIO taps are provided to take multiple lines from a single RIO head. The RIO head then sends the data to the CPU. The CPU processes the data and gives necessary signals to the concerned section FIRE EXTINGUISHING PLANT In this unit all necessary equipments driving forced water is provided for fire extinguishing. It consists of motors for driving water pumps. When the cortisole bulb in transformer bursts the surrounding water outlet points sprays water automatically. In a fire unit there are 2 main motor pumps of 90 KW rating. There is a jockey pump of 1 lkw. Main motor pumps are used for 4 to 7 bar water spray.
Diesel engine pump is used for 5 to7 bar. Jockey pump is used for 6 to 7 bar pressure. There are various outlets across the power plant for fire extinguishing purposes. SUMMARY KDPP is the one of the major power plant in the North Kerala. It forms the main power back-up solution for the increasing load demands there. Being a diesel plant it has to assure perfect cleanliness. The plant is designed for continuous working and as per international standards. The plant setup is done by WARTSILA NSD, Finland. All the important parts, the working and maintenance of the plant have understood.
Cite this Kdpp Report
Kdpp Report. (2016, Sep 30). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/kdpp-report/