Unit 064 1:1 cross reference to unit 065 1:2- Explain how different approaches to work with children, in the early years, has influenced current provision in the UK. The development of the early years curricula has been significantly influenced by the following approaches: – Reggio Emilia – High/scope – Montessori – Steiner Firstly I will look at Reggio Emilia. we use Reggio Emilia this comes from a town in Italy, the heart of the approach is a focus on partnerships with children aged 0 – 6 and parents. With them begin involved in their own learning.
Children need control over some of their own play and learning with teachers acting as a facilitator. Children learn using all their senses, children learn from play and enjoy being with others. They also need a rich environment so they can learn and express themselves in a variety of ways. Reggio Emilia influence on the EYFS curriculum: – Practitioners are meant to provide opportunities for child-initiated play. – There is a theme entitled ‘enabling environments’ that promotes practitioners to think about how rich the environments are for children. There is an emphasis on sensory and outdoor play. – There is an emphasis on children leading through play with other children. High/scope This approach begins in the united states, as a way of improving outcomes for disadvantaged children. It is an established model which influences children to be involved with decision making and taking responsibility. High/scope recognises the uniqueness of each child and develops their self confidence by building on what they can do. Children are considered active learners so play is used as the model for learning.
Routines are also considered highly important as children gain stability and consistency from this and respond better from this. Building a strong relationship with parents is also a main principle of this approach along with the appropriate curriculum. The influence High/scope has on the EYFS: – Practitioners are meant to provide opportunities for child-initiated play – Practitioners are encouraged to talk to children about their learning Montessori The Montessori theory was developed by an Italian doctor who wanted to improve outcomes for children with disabilities.
The term ‘play with a purpose’ is at the heart of Montessori as equipment and resources have specific learning objectives and provide children with graduated challenge. The foundations and concepts of Montessori theory can be applied across all ages. They are: – Independence, “never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed” – Maria Montessori. It should always be a goal to make the child independent and be able to do things for himself. This is achieved by giving children opportunities. When a child is able to do things for themselves, e. g. dress themselves.
Their self belief and self confidence increases. – Observation, observation is key for learning about what the child’s needs are. If you see a child behaving a particular way there is always a reason for this and something you can do to help. – Following the child. A child will show you what they need to do, what they need to develop themselves and what area they need to be challenged in. From what you observe in a child follow them from what they need to do. If they want to do something which isn’t particularly safe indoors provide an environment in which they can the activity where it is safe. Correcting the child. Never point out a child mistake this will only lower their self esteem and maybe make them too scared to ever attempt things again. Children will always make mistakes and it’s our job to teach them in a nice manor the correct way. – Prepared environment, this simply means an environment set up of activities ready for a child to be able to explore. – Absorbent mind, Children under 3 do not need to have lessons in order to learn they simply just absorb everything in their environment by being part of it.
This is why it is very important to have the environment set up in a good positive way. Steiner The Steiner approach emphasises the importance of fostering children’s creativity and imagination, their understanding and exploration of the natural world and the importance of the practitioner as a role model. The actual Steiner ethos is to provide an unhurried and creative learning environment where children can find the joy in learning and experience the richness of childhood rather than early specialisation or academic hot-housing.
Routines form a key part as does a blend of adult-directed and child-initiated play. Manufactured toys are not to be used as these are thought to inhibit children natural curiosity and imagination. Formal reading and writing does not begin until a child is 7 years old and there is emphasis on working according to children’s personalities. The approach works well for all children irrespective of academic ability, class, ethnicity or religion. It takes into account of the needs of the whole child – academic, physical, emotional and spiritual.
It’s based on an understanding of the relevance of the different phases of child development. It’s supposed to develop a love of learning and enthusiasm for school. This approach is respected world wide for its ability to produce very able young people who have a strong sense of self and diverse capacities that enable them to become social and economically responsible citizens. Common core The common core is the name given to six areas of skills, knowledge and expertise that the English government believes to be essential for all those working with children and young people.
The common core was established as part of a range of measures taken following the death of Victoria Climbie, an 8 year old whose death at the hands of her carers was considered to be preventable. The six areas are: – Effective commiunication and engagement with children, young people and families – Child and young person development -Safe guarding and promoting the welfare of the child or young person. – Supporting transitions – Multi agency and integrated working – Information sharing. These areas underpin all initial training and form a major part of this qualification.
The introduction of common core has affected the approach of settings working with children as it has encouraged greater multi-agency working and closer collaboration with other settings. 1:3 – explain why early years frame work emphasise a personal and individual approach to learning. All of the early years framework now focus on the needs of individual children. This is important as we know that children develop at different rates, they are all unique and will come from a range of back grounds.
This means that children will have different needs and interests and so will require a range of different opportunities in order to thrive. It is also worth noting that children are starting to spend longer periods away from their parents as a result of socio-economic changes so extra care is required to support children’s emotional well-being. The EYFS stresses the importance of personalisation of learning and development experiences. 2:1 – observation 2:2 – observation 2:3 – explain how the environment meets the needs of individual children.
When preparing the environments for children we have to think carefully about their age/stage of development. You also have to ensure that the experiences and opportunities offered, will deliver across the areas of development outlined in the framework. – Environments for babies 0-1 years Babies need changing environments and it is essential some time is spent outdoors. Babies need a variety of sound experiences but too much background noise may make it difficult for them to discriminate sounds effectively. Over stimulating babies and young children through any of their sensed can lead to them coming distressed.
Sensory exploration is essential for babies up to 12months. Sufficient floor space and push along toys are essential for babies that are starting to move. Although this is all essential it is not enough. You cannot just set up areas for children, in order to enrich their play and extend their development, we also need to consider how well the areas are working in respect of the following: – Extending children’s learning and development – Encouraging high expectations of their achievement. This is very important because one of the EYFS requirements is that every rovider must ensure that they have created an ‘enjoyable and challenging’ learning and development experience which meets EVERY child’s needs. It is important to spend time reflecting on whether the environment is working for individual children. This means carrying out sensitive observations on individual children and considering how comfortable they seem and also how they engage with the environment. As children’s rates of development differ, it is sometimes possible to find children who need more challenge and others who would benefit from slightly different types of play opportunities and resources.
It is also essential that we consider whether children with additional needs or disabilities are able to benefit from what we are providing. 3:1 Explain the partnership model of working with carers Definition of partnership with parents/carers: ‘A way of working with parents/carers that recognises their needs and their entitlement to be involved in decisions affecting their children. Today it is understood that practitioners do not know better than a parent. Practitioners can learn from parents, parents know their child best so the practitioners can learn from the parents.
This is particularly best if the child has a disability or medical condition. The best possible care for a child is when practitioners and parents come together to share ideas, information and thoughts about the best way forward for that child. Partnership working underpins successful delivery of the EYFS in a number of ways: -Where children receive education and care in more than one setting, practitioners must ensure continually and coherence by sharing relevant information with each other and with parents. Patterns of attendance should be a key factor in practitioners planning. Close working between early year’s practitioners and parents is vital for the identification of children’s learning needs and to ensure a quick response to any are of particular difficulty. Parents and families are central to a child’s well being and practitioners should support this important relationship by sharing information and offering support for extending learning in the home. Practitioners and carers can work together on a child’s profile book. It is the practitioners responsibility but it is to be shared with the carer and the carer can add to it at anytime making the practitioner aware the child can also do this etc.
Carers are also invited at anytime to contribute to the child’s learning by offering ideas and suggestions related to the learning environment. If the carer or parent ever has any concerns about their child’s development this must be taken very seriously and acted upon if necessary. All carers have the opportunity to discuss their child’s developmental needs with the practitioner at any time. It’s important for practitioners to respect parents and carers views and wishes. For practitioners to be able to do this it is important that they understand and value children’s cultural backgrounds. :2 – Explore the barriers to participation for carers and analyse ways in which they can be overcome. The following could be barriers that carers may experience: – Time When parents or carers drop off they usually are in a rush to get to work, so don’t have the quality time to spend talking to the practitioner handing over how the child has been. Most parents would love to be able to come in and settle their child in properly but there isn’t enough time for this. The same happens when a parent or carer picks up, they usually just want to spend the time they do have in the evening with their child so quickly pick them up and rush off.
Some of these parents do ring once they have got to work to check their child has settled in properly and hand over information that they forgot. – Confidence Many parents or carers lack the confidence to be able to talk openly about any concerns they might have. They also might feel they don’t have anything extra to offer practitioners. This is why it is particularly important for practitioners to make an even bigger effort when communicating. Home visits can be useful and simply asking the carer lots of questions. -Culture Many parents or carers may not have experience in working with partnership.
They may not know what is expected and build anxiety around this. Practitioners can help this by engaging in conversation with the parents or carers, showing them the profile book and asking them is there anything else your child does that we haven’t covered. Practitioner is also supposed to explain to the parent or carer that if they have any concerns to just discuss them. – Language and literacy needs Some parents or carers may find it hard to engage with partnership work if they cannot speak fluent English or find it hard to read or write. It is important for a practitioner to be sensitive to the language and literacy needs.
It can be advised that they can bring someone along with them when picking up or dropping off that can interpret for them. Practitioners must also avoid putting the parents of the spot in terms of asking them to read and write and may have to provide alternatives. 3:3 – Explain the strategies to support carers who may react positively or negatively to partnership opportunities All parents and carers react differently to opportunities in different ways depending on many factors that influence their own lives. E. g. previous experiences, stresses of work, and personal situations.
Although we do our best to create partnership working with carers, there will always be some people who respond negatively and do not wish to take up the opportunities. It is important to remember they have the right not to participate and they should not be put under any pressure. Negative responses could be as follows: * Parent or carer making no acknowledgment of recent information about their child’s progress or developmental needs. A practitioner could deal with this situation as follows: – Practitioner should recognise this may be because parent/carer is unaware of the information or does not realise it’s significance. The parent/Carer may not be able to understand the information in it’s formal state. – Practitioners could seek time with parent/carer to show them the information and reaffirm it verbally. – An open evening for all parents/carers to see their child’s progress may support parent/carer involvement. – A more relaxed approach can make carers feel more comfortable. – Ask parents or carers if there is any way we can make them feel more involved, provide a suggestions box where they can write it down and post it in there anonymously. Another example is Parent/carer failing to inform practitioner of recent changes to home circumstances. – Practitioner may have noticed a change in the child or have concerns about their behaviour A practitioner must deal with this situation with a sensitive approach. Mentioning noted changes and asking tactful, appropriate questions of parent/carer in a private space may help gather the required information. – Thanking the parent if they do share relevant details and explaining why this will benefit their child and this will hopefully promote future partnership working. Positive response from arent/carer to partner opportunities: * Parent/carer asking for information about activities and events their child will be undertaking. A practitioner should deal with this in the following way: – Practitioner needs to respond to this request in an effective and timely manner – Offering to show the parent/carer the type of activity, giving them the opportunity to see how the activity is offered or giving them written information about an event will all ensure the parent/carer feels fully informed – Practitioners should try and share this information as soon as is reasonable practical so the parent/carer feel involved. :4 – Explain how multi agency working operates within early years provision and the benefits it offers to children and carers In addition to settings working closely with parents and carers, settings also work closely with other agencies. In particularly children and families with additional needs. Following the EYFS framework, in order to achieve the every child matters outcomes for children. (Being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution and achieving economic well-being. Practitioners need to work together across services. This may involve working with home visitors, outreach workers, health or social care professionals, ethnic minority achievement service staff, librarians and local artists. To best support children all these agencies need to support children and families well and listen carefully to all concerned and to put children’s needs first. CAF or TAC meetings will be held where all the agencies can get together with the parents and discuss the child’s progress and appropriate next steps.
During these meetings it is agreed that nothing is to be discussed after, as everything is confidential. Advantages and benefits of working in partnership with multi-disciplinary teams: – The skills knowledge and expertise of all agencies are used to arrive as the best solutions for the child and their family. – The family feel their role as expert of their child’s experiences and needs is recognised and respected. – It can provide a more consistent approach for the child and their family to the task or situation being faced. The agencies, the child and their families can share problems, difficulties and successes to achieve a positive outcome. – Shared expertise can motivate, encourage, stimulate and support all parties involved. – Agencies often become more willing to adopt new ways of thinking and working. – Responsibilities are shared. – There is continuity to meeting the holistic needs of the child through shared experiences and information.