A library ( derived from the French word “librairie” and Latin “liber” which means book) is an organized collection of information resources which are made available and accessible to a defined community for the purpose reference or borrowing. A library does not only provide physical access, but also digital access to information resources and would be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or even both at the same time.( )
The collection in a library may include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and physical or digital information resources.
The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing – the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. These written archives mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. The earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.
Archives of the earliest form of writings (the clay tablets in cuneiform script, discovered in Sumer) made up the first libraries. Some these writings date far back to 2600 BC and mainly contained records of commercial transactions or inventories. ( Maclay, Kathleen, May 2003 “Clay cuneiform tablets from ancient Mesopotamia to be placed online”) Papyrus of Ancient Egypt containing government and temple records were also similar. Ugarit held the earliest discovered private archives. Evidence also reveals libraries at Nippur (about 1900 BC) and at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.( The American International Encyclopedia, New York: J. J. Little & Ives, 1954; Volume IX) At Nineveh, there has been a discovery over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal.
The discovery include the Enuma Elish, also known as the “Epic of Gilgamesh” – a traditional Babylonian view of creation, a large “omen text” selection, astronomic/astrological texts, and standard list such as word lists, bilingual vocabularies, list of signs and synonyms and list of medical diagnoses.( Epic of Creation , in Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford, 1989) The library of Alexendria in Egypt , which was concieved and opened 3rd century BC (either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter (323–283 BC) or of his son Ptolemy II (283–246 BC)) was the largest and most important library of the ancient world. (Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, Sagan, C 1980, “Episode 1: The Shores of the Cosmic Ocean”; Phillips, Heather A., “The Great Library of Alexandria?”. Library Philosophy and Practice, August 2010”) The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Anatolia was completed in 135 AD and was built to store 12,000 scrolls . (Swain, Simon (2002). Dio Chrysostom: Politics, Letters, and Philosophy.
Oxford University Press. p. 57.; Nicols, John (1978). Vespasian and the partes Flavianae. Steiner. p. 109.) In the 5th century BC private and personal libraries consisting of written books appeared in Greece. During the reign of Augustus in Rome there were public libraries in the forums of Rome- including the libraries in the Porticus Octaviae near the Theatre of Marcellus, in the temple of Apollo Palatinus, and in the Bibliotheca Ulpiana in the Forum of Trajan. Unlike the Greek libraries, the Roman libraries provided users with direct access to scrolls which were kept on shelves. (Casson, 2001, p. 81; Buchanan, 2012, p. 61)
REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
Before computerization of libraries, library task were done manually and each task was done independently from the others. For example using ordering slips library materials would be ordered, users would sign out books, providing necessary information – such as their names and address manually. However, in 1936, the University of Texas became using punch card systems to manage library circulation, which only improved the making loan tracking more effective. ( Gary M. Pitkin, ed. Library Systems Migration: An Introduction) However in the 1960s, library automation was born with the advent of the MARC standards. Libraries become experimenting with computers. And in the 1970s, integrated library systems finally appeared.
First these systems, included necessary hardware and software which allowed the connection of major circulation tasks, including circulation control and overdue notices. With advancing technology, features such as acquisition, cataloguing, and reservation of titles. (Kochtanek, Thomas R. (2002), Library Information Systems: From Library Automation to Distributed Information Access Solutions) Some library management systems include:
KOHA which is the first library management system to be reviewed KOHA. Was implementation in 1999 and its functionalities has been adopted by thousands libraries all over the world. KOHA version 3.0 release in 2005 which integrates a powerful Zebra indexing engine, KOHA became a viable, scalable solution for libraries of all kinds. LibLime Koha which is the world’s most functionally advanced open source ILS on the market today. However is system has a set back. It is web based, in which means it database can be hacked and altered. (www.koha.org)
ADLIB which was initially developed by Lipman Management Resources of Maidenhead and supplied by Adlib Information Systems in the 1980s. It records 11 users in the mid-1990s, with 10 been special libraries. ALEPH 500 which was developed for the Hebrew university in Jerusalem by in Ex libris the 1980s.
DEFINITIONS, ACRONYMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS
a.) Archive: A Collection of permanently valuable historical records documenting a particular subject or activity or transaction. Also the repository where such a collection is kept. b.) Bibliography: A list of resources used in writing a research paper or other document that appears at the end of the document. See also: Citation, Reference.
c.) CaMS: Cataloging and Metadata Services. Part of Technical Services.
d.) Circulation: The circulation desk is the place in the library where you check out, renew, and return library materials. You may also place a hold, or report an item missing from the shelves. e.) Citation: A reference or footnote to a book, a magazine or journal article, or another source. It contains all the information necessary to identify and locate the work, including author, title(s), publisher, date, volume, issue number, and pages.
f.) DCRM(B): Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books), the updated “successor” to DCRB (Descriptive Cataloging of Books), meant to update the older guide and bring it into accord with international standards; also the first in an ongoing series of cataloging guides for special collection items covering maps, serials, graphic materials, and other special collections items beyond books alone.
g.) Entry: Refers to the data in a catalog record by which it is retrieved, for example, an author entry. Also called a “heading.” Standardized forms of author names and subjects are used in catalog records to facilitate sorting and retrieval.
h.) ISBN: International Standard Book Number. The ISBN is a unique machine-readable identification number, which marks any book unmistakably. First implemented in the U.K. in 1967, the ISBN is now used in 159 countries and territories.
i.) ISSN: International Standard Serial Number. Eight-digit number which identifies periodical publications, including electronic serials. Created in the 1970’s, the ISSN Network has assigned more than one million ISSN numbers. There are 75 national ISSN centers coordinated by an international center based in Paris; the U.S. center is managed by the National Serials Data Program at the Library of Congress.
j.) LISSC: The Library Integrated Systems Steering Committee. The group that reviews policies and procedures that relate to the Integrated Library System.
k.) Manuscripts: Handwritten or unpublished documents, such as correspondence, notes, and drafts of articles or books.
l.) MARC Record: MARC – MAchine-Readable Cataloging. Standard format for machine-readable bibliographic records. “http://libserv5.princeton.edu/letc/glossary”
Cite this Library system chapter 2
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