Literature Review Essay - Part 4

Introduction
Alcohol related problems is one of today’s contemporary issues, as there are studies that suggest that due to alcohol related problems there are various impacts that it can have to an individual, and it can include social harms and any antisocial behaviour, such as alcohol fuelled violence - Literature Review Essay introduction. This literature review will explore the academic readings, that help assist identity key issues relating to a criminology perspective of alcohol related problems. Ergo, based on past research from the academic readings this literature review will explore prevention strategies that help reduce social harm to the individual and the community, and also the consequences that alcohol can lead to. Also, this literature review, has identified gaps within the academic sources. The gaps that all the sources have in common would be, the use of education and intervention for the individuals on alcohol related problems to control criminal behaviours before it is too late and also, the lack of numeric statistics and evidences supporting the academic sources.

Benefits of the Literature Review
By analysing the academic sources, it can assist in gaining proper knowledge of the effects that alcohol can lead to and the prevention strategies that are able to prevent and reduce social harm to the individual and community from the misuse of alcohol. Ergo, this literature review will benefit ‘assignment three’ as it is able to give a proper understanding of ‘alcohol related problems’ within areas, such as Manly.

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Consequences of Alcohol Related Problems
The Australian Medical Association (2012) mentions that most Australians, especially the youths within society are drinking in a way that puts their own health at risk, which causes further harm to themselves and others’ around them. Morgan and McAtamney (2009), Wells and Graham (2003), Dearden and Payne (2009), Dawe, Harnett and Frye (2008) and the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy (2001), all have a common idea of the types of consequences that involve the use of alcohol related problems. The similarities of these
literature articles has shown that the consequences, mainly involve alcohol related violence within the community and within the family. Alcohol-related crime and disorder can have a huge impact on the perceptions of crime and safety among the broader community, ergo making the community fearing for their safety (Morgan&McAtamney, 2009). Based on the literature sources, the main consequences of alcohol related problems involve the following:

Firstly, according to the 2007 national drug strategy household (AIHW, 2008), it highlights that ‘thirteen percent of Australians are made to feel fearful by someone under the influence of alcohol’ and ‘almost five percent of Australians aged above fourteen years old have been physically abused by someone under the influence of alcohol’. However, not all alcohol related violence are all physical, statistics have shown that ‘one in four Australian victims of alcohol related violence have been verbally abused and neglected’ (Morgan&McAtamney, 2009). Furthermore, alcohol is the main reason of the occurring domestic violence and child abuse and neglect within the Australian household (Dawe, Harnett&Frye, 2008). This can be supported by Dube et. al. (2001) stating that child abuse from those parents who misuse or abuse alcohol are more likely to be subjected to various forms of physical and verbal abuse. From the research, it provides an evidence that from the mistreatment of children, especially those who were victims of physical abuse and neglect, are more likely to offend later in their lives due to the idea of the victims having a high exposure to alcohol in their lives and create a cycle of alcoholic problems.

Secondly, Dearden and Payne (2009) and Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy (2001) has suggested that, violence that is fuelled by the alcohol consumption can lead to homicide. According to the National Homicide Monitoring Program’s database, it stated that ‘around half of forty-seven percent of all homicides within Australia in 2000-2006 were alcohol related’ (Dearden&Payne, 2009). Thus, most of these homicides have concluded that both the offender and victim were intoxicated. In contrast, Wallace (1986) believes that alcohol is not the direct link to homicide, but is in fact encourages the offender to offend. Findings have shown that there are still on-going debates on whether or not alcohol consumptions are the direct cause of homicide or if it is just the aggression of the offender from consuming alcohol. In regards to Wallace (1986) their concluding arguments are very weak and bias as there are no formal evidence supporting their claim. However, either way as a consequence, alcohol consumption could lead to homicide.

Prevention strategies on Alcohol Related Problems
According to the following literature, it has shown that there have been many crime prevention, which are usually enforced by the law enforcement and criminal justice system. All of the following academic readings share similar notions of the alcohol related crime prevention and policy makings to be able to reduce social harm involving the individual and their community.

Policy making by stakeholders, involve the access and availability of alcohol can help reduce the alcohol related problems occurring to the individual and their community. Ergo, the Liquor Act legislation prohibits the supply of alcohol to individuals under the age of 18 years old (Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy, 2001; McMurran, 2012). Thus, alcohol suppliers are to thoroughly check identification of the individual and if the individual who is under the age of 18 years old, holds and shows fake identification, law enforcement may be involved, as strict penalties for infringements apply, which could result in going to court or receiving a fine. In contrast,Trim, Leuthe and Chassin (2006) argues that not all alcohol purchases are made by those who are under 18 years old but the individuals may ask an adult; who could be a relative or a stranger, to help them obtain the alcohol. Furthermore, the findings have proven that individuals can find a way around policies, in regards to the access and availability to alcohol, however, there are no evidence to future validate this argument. In addition, to make this approach to be more effective in the future, there should be surveillance cameras outside the store to watch out for any negative activity. Also, to decrease the curiosity of alcohol for children, law enforcement and education should work together in preventing alcohol related problems and stop the cycle. For example, the use of ‘Healthy Harold’ during school, to educate the children on the consequences of alcohol.

Similarly, Robert, Ammerman, Peggy, Ott, Ralph and Tarter (1999) and Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy (2001) agree that in regards to the development of police initiatives; random breath testing is a successful crime prevention in road crashes, as it motivates the individual to drink responsibly. This can be supported by the reduction of the alcohol involved crashes on the roads (Homel, 1988). From the readings, this is usually because the individuals do not want to be caught and be financially and emotionally strained. However, this policy is through police discretion and power. It is up to the law enforcement agencies, in regards to whether or not the individual should be arrested or fine (McMurran, 2012). Thus, this type of prevention strategy needs to be committed by the law enforcement in order to keep the road safe from those under the influence of alcohol, or else there would be no use for the policy and instead create more chaos on roads. Hence, to avoid the lack of commitment from the law enforcement agencies there should be proper training and licences to protect members of the community from alcohol related problems.

Conclusion
This literature review has highlighted the consequences of alcohol and the strategies to help prevent and reduce social harm to the community and the individual. Through the findings of the crime prevention of alcohol related crimes, it has shown it is not as effective. Thus, it has shown that there needs to be a new approach on alcohol related problems. Ergo, any changes involving the criminal justice strategies are most likely to succeed. Furthermore, it is important to apply formal and informal controls in regards to the misuse of alcohol and problematic behaviours. Overall, there were gaps within the academic readings used in this literature review, nevertheless, it has given a better understanding of different point of views, in regards of alcohol related problems in a criminology perspective.a

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