Literature Review of Mediation and Advocacy Bobbie Cecchini University of Phoenix Literature Review of Mediation and Advocacy Literature Review of Mediation and Advocacy in Human Services Field. This paper will review the following three areas: The Final Exit Network, Crime Victim’s, , and Social Security Disability Advocacy. Additionally, we will explore the information which is available and links to mediation and advocacy to the human services field. This paper will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each site, the availability of information, and the current trends using advocacy and or mediation in the human services field.
Furthermore, this paper will discuss the importance of advocating in all three areas simultaneously for the overall wellness of the human services field and the clients. The paper will continue on to discuss the differences and similarities between advocates and decision makers within an agency setting. Advocates and Decision Makers Most of today’s society turns to an Advocate for help after they have failed in an attempt by themselves. The advocate is then charged with the task of cleaning up the mess or fixing the situation before they can proceed. “Decision makers have certain preconceptions about advocates.
For example, “This professional can be trusted,” or “This person is biased. ” The advocate can either try to foster a different type of relationship or employ strategies that are most likely to be effective given the confines of the existing relations. ” (Allan Edward Barsky, 2000, p. 221) Each website visited has demonstrated the use of both an Advocacy and a Mediator. “In many cases, an advocate combines both methods. ” (Allan Edward Barsky, 2000, p. 219) While this is true, in most cases the client remains the decision maker because the Advocate is working on behalf of the client.
One example of this can be recognized in the Final Exit Network website. Although the client solicits the aid of an Advocate, it is ultimately the client who makes all the decisions. Final Exit Network The Final Exit Network website provides information about end-of -life choices. The goals of this organization are “too serve people who are suffering in tolerantly from an irreversible condition which has become more than I can bear, to foster research to find new peaceful and reliable ways to sell to deliver, to promote the use of advanced directives, and to advocate for individuals went there advanced directives are not being honored. (The Final Exit Network, 2004 – 2008) Information on this sight appears to be more than adequate as it offers detailed explaination as to the purpose of the organization. Furthermore, the site provides information on resources, news, legislation, additional reading material, and it explains what the “Final Exit Network” is all about and how it works. The Final Exit Network provides a means for those who are suffering from terminal and or painful incurable diseases, to end their life with dignity and shows respect for the right to choose.
The Final Exit Network also has a hand in supporting research on methods of self deliverance. The site is clearly not involved with assisted suicide but they lobby for changes in the laws governing Final Exit choices. ”Policy advocacy is directed at changes in rules or laws that go beyond a single agency (Fowler, 1989; Sosin & Caulum, 1983). ” (Allan Edward Barsky, 2000) The advocates involved are volunteers and consist of medical doctors, psychologists, and other related backgrounds. These volunteers offer counseling, support, and guidance to self-deliverance as a time and place of one’s choosing.
There is a new emergence of organizations such as the Final Exit Network, because people are realizing that even though the laws prohibit assisted suicide, people who suffer with painful, debilitating, and terminal conditions should be able to make their own choice. These organizations work mostly under power and writes negotiating, but will also use a combination including interest-based negotiations. The Final Exit Network advocates require precise steps to be followed prior to acceptance and adhere to a strict guide procedure from start to finish.
And, they “encourage consultations with one’s personal physicians, psychiatrist, oncologist, or other medical specialists. ” (The Final Exit Network, 2004 – 2008) This agency makes it very clear that the client is in charge of their own decisions and they advocate only for the right to choose the time and method of one’s own demise. This type of advocacy is important within the human services field because while they are not directly involved in “assisting” the client’s suicide, they do help the client obtain resources for the method of doing so.
Frankly, the importance of this type of advocacy lies in that they protect an individuals’ right to decide when and how to take the Final Exit. Crime Victims Advocacy The Office for Victims of Crime, OVC provides victim assistance resources in the areas of “Child Abuse, Domestic Abuse, Elder Abuse, Sexual Assault/Rape, Stalking, Dating Violence, Campus Crime, Drunk Driving, Identity Theft, Homicide, Hate and Bias Crimes, and Trafficking in Persons. ” (OVC, 1984) The strengths of this website are clearly the volume of information made available to visitors. This site provides information and advocacy for every conceivable type of abuse.
OVC publications are available as well as links to more detailed information and regulations for compensating victims. It appears that this website is mainly involved in interest based associations, whereby both parties access what they truly one out of negotiations and then work together in an effort to find, ways in which to meet the needs of both parties. OVC provides toll-free telephone numbers for every type of abuse assistance and offers training and technical assistance coupled with grants and funding information. Several research links and statistics about crime victims are included.
Additionally, the OVC website has a directory of help links for various cultural groups. The only drawback of this web site appears to be the sheer volume of links and information which tend to go on and on. In defense however, one immediately realizes how important this information is and how helpful it must be for visitors who are seeking help. Cochran, Foley & Associates, P. C. Social Security Disability This website, located in the State of Michigan, is that of a Social Security Disability Advocacy and provides the reader with a wealth of information on the subject. The Social Security Administration pays benefits to persons who cannot work because of a medical condition or catastrophic injury that is expected to last at least one year. ” (Cochran & Associates) Social Security Disability Advocates are people who help applicants of Social Security Disability through the process and can represent and advocate the client through almost the entire process of applying for and appealing denials. The strength of this site is a wealth of knowledge that is shared with the site visitor. The site provides information on claim denials, advocates verses attorney, laws on social security disability, and more.
A Social Security Disability Advocate can do all the necessary paperwork for the client who is applying for disability benefits. The Disability Advocate can represent the client in a court of law, can write the legal brief, knows how the system works, and is able to represent the client in negotiations. A Social Security Disability Advocate is involved in both interest-based negotiations with power and rights-based negotiations. The weakness of the site appears to be that it is overdone or otherwise provides too much information for the reader to take in.
This writer believes in keeping it simple. Because, when too much information is provided. The average reader will simply scan the material, but does not get enough information that is required. Social Security Disability Advocates can provide the same services that an attorney would provide. However, some Attorneys are also Advocates. In order to apply or appeal an application for benefits, an attorney is not needed. A certified Disability Advocate can usually spend more time preparing for the process than an Attorney can because that is all they do.
Neither an Attorney nor an Advocate can charge the client unless the Disability claim is won and they both get paid the same amount. The only difference is that an Attorney is paid directly from the Social Security Administration and the Advocate is paid from the client after the initial check is received. There is a definite need for these services because most people who process the application themselves, are denied immediately. The reason for denial usually stems from the fact that the layperson has little of no knowledge of how the process works. They do not know how to get past the red tape.
After two or three claim denials, the layperson tends to become disillusioned and give up. As a last resort, the applicant solicits help from a Social Security Disability Advocate. The main reason they wait so long to find an Advocate is because they do not initially trust a lay person to work in their behalf. These “helping professionals “contract” with clients in the early stages of a problem-solving process. ” (Zastrow, 1999). ” (Allan Edward Barsky, 2000) Conclusion Each of these websites appeared to use a common nation client empowerment and representation depending upon the circumstances of the situation.
Considering the scope of issues that are handled by each one of these websites, this writer recognizes that no single process of advocacy or mediation takes place, but rather requires a combination of processes. In summary, one must note the importance in both advocacy and mediation because they are the key elements used to empower the client through provision of information, knowledge, and enlightenment. References Allan Edward Barsky. (2000). Conflict Resolution for the Helping Professions. USA: Thompson Learning. Cochran, F. , & Associates. (n. d. ).
Social Security Disability Help. Retrieved February 15, 2009, from Cochran, Foley, and Associates Web site: http://www. Social Security Disability Lawyer Michigan SSD SSI Supplemental Security Income Social Security Disability Attorney. mht The Final Exit Network. (2004 – 2008). Final Exit Network. Retrieved May 22, 2008, from Final Exit Network Web site: http://www. finalexitnetwork. com Office for Victims of Crime. (1984). Resources, links, and advocacy for victims of crimes. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from OVC Web site: http://www. crimevictims. gov