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Management and Leadership Essays

In the current world today, where management and leadership are integrated together for an effective and efficient organization, the role the leadership plays in the management and development of an organization culture are usually the guidelines for a successful organization.
It is not a concealed fact anymore that the leaders today need to maintain a balance between the roles to cater to multiple audiences while communicating a common primary vision. Today the leaders’ success lies in the quality and ability to inspire their employees to embrace the vision then integrating it in the industry or the market, working and driving not only for the organization’s success but also the development and expansion of the industry/market.
Today, organizations which believe in employee empowerment and where customers are kept at the top most level of the organization hierarchy. The leadership is one area where all the stakeholders, employees and even the customers look to for solutions and knowledge. The job of the leader is to define the dots to the employees and management’s task is to help the employees join the dots for a favorable outcome.
Just as how much the workers and the employees are keen to know the route and destination of the company, they are also interested in the past of the company just maintain and keep knowledge of changing trends for analysis purpose where leadership plays the role of a historian. It is the job of the leadership to decide the mechanization or humanization of the business based on the cost-benefit analysis or the industry which defines whether the organization is product-driven or customer oriented.  (Bateman and Snell, 2005)
The best serving role for a leader is the role of the ambassador for communication purposes. The leadership is the interface of the organization for the external world outside the organization. In many cases and examples around the world, companies have experienced drastic changes and developments due to the change in the leadership which always bring with it a new change for the organization. The leaders are personable, conversational and charismatic, no matter how difficult the situation and conditions imply.
Another of the leadership’s quality is to analyze the condition of the organization as well as the industry. This helps them not only when to decide the methodology of work but also to develop and set such standards and protocols which are in line with the needs and demands of the employees.
As triumph factors to information administration have been acknowledged in every organization, the next important thing that each organization need to recognize is its organizational culture. Organizational culture is the exerting authoritative influence on how firms and organizations direct data and thus becomes a sought-after apparatus to sponsor free-flow of information with employees and across departments.  There are four ways and methods in which organizational culture influences the actions based on knowledge developed in-house, shared and applied. Culture and subculture \form the assumptions regarding what awareness are and which information is significant enough to be managed. Culture defines the interaction involving individual and organizational information and data, formatting that is likely to manage precise information, as well as who must distribute it and who can store it. Next, culture defines the framework for social contact and determines how the organizational information will be applied in meticulous situations. Finally, culture gives form to the processes by which innovative information is fashioned, legitimated and circulated in organizations. (Bateman and Snell, 2005)
The major roles of leadership in the conception and management of organizational culture right through organizational expansion has been separated into the subsequent stages; early life, midlife and maturity and decline. Throughout the configuration of organizations, leaders or founders have a major force on how the early members of the organization classify and crack their exterior version and in-house incorporation problems.  While founders or leaders are frequently entrepreneurs who have an elevated level of self-confidence and willpower, they usually compel well-built assumptions to their made-up organizations.
When their assumptions endure and are flourishing in the business atmosphere, the assumptions will be professed as accurate and ultimately will be internalized as ingredient of the organizational culture.  In addition, founders or leaders have a propensity to decide on supplementary organizational members having the comparable assumptions and consequently reinforces the dealing of the organizational culture.  Organizational members who have contradictory outlook on organizational culture be likely to depart and thus generate a more harmonized climate for those who stay put. (Bateman and Snell, 2005)
In organizations, the inferior instruments are occasionally tagged as organizational environment and they are a manifestation and expression of cultural supposition consequential from the leaders, especially at the preliminary arrangement of the organizations.  These resultant methods can grow to be a commanding corroboration of the most important means used by the leaders. The philosophy of using the lesser system is that they must be unswerving with the chief methods and leaders need to set an example for the rest of the organization’s members.
The dynamics of midlife, maturity and declining organizations in term of the authority of leaders are relatively diverse from the premature period of organization creation. For example, in the midlife organizations, the culture establishes the direction as founders have been replaced with newer age band of CEOs. The new class of leaders desires to comprehend the organizational culture and settles on cultural hypothesis that wishes to be changed.  They become the cultural change agents. They can encourage transformation through organized endorsement of preferred subculture, exercise deliberate organizational progress projects, produce analogous learning composition or unfreezing and change through technological seduction.
When the organizations enter into the maturity and decline phase, which may point toward that the existing organizational culture, becomes obsolete, the leaders need to start the change process at a more persistent intensity. At this moment, leaders with transformational leadership style are frequently advantageous.
It is obvious that in order to grow organizational cultures to facilitate understanding and management plans, leadership that helps and believes in the significance of knowledge management is obligatory. Leadership that is not sympathetic of knowledge management programs or believe that knowledge management is just another quick-fix resolution would not be capable to marshal the organizational culture to information supportive culture. Leaders who are info-conscious will take actions and reflect constructively in the management path. For that reason, organizational property, structure and formations will reflect the cultural values of the leaders by the use of the resultant means anticipated by the organizations head. Furthermore, leaders who chart to put into operation employee management ideas call for to evaluate the phase of their organizational growth as dissimilar types of cultural transformation instruments should be installed in harmony to the different stages of organizational growth.
The biggest difference between managers and leaders is the way they stimulate and inspire groups and individuals who exert or go behind them, and this lays down the nature for a good number of supplementary characteristic of what they accomplish.

Many people, by the way, are mutual. They have management jobs, but they appreciate that one cannot buy hearts and dedication and commitment, mainly to chase them down a complicated path, and so act as leaders too.
By classification, managers have subordinates, except their designation is voluntary and specified as a mark of pre-eminence, in which case the title is a misnomer and their influence over others is additional than formal authority. Managers have a place of authority vested in them by the organization, and their subordinates toil for them and for the most part do as they are told. Management style is transactional, in that the manager tells the subordinate what to do, and the subordinate carries out the task just because they are a blind robot waiting for a programmed sequence, but because they have been promised a reward which can also be their salary only for doing so which can be attributed to the expectancy theory according to which employees are largely motivated by rewards which can be materialistic or non-materialistic or both.
Managers are remunerated to get work through (as they are also subordinates of the higher management too), time and again within rigid limitations of time and money. They thus unsurprisingly pass on this work center to their subordinates.
An interesting research finding about managers is that they tend to come from stable home backgrounds and led relatively normal and comfortable lives. Because of their background the are risk averse and always avoid conflicts as much as they can. They always like to run a ‘happy ship’.
Leaders have followers
People look upon their leaders for tasks assignment. A lot of organizational leaders do have subordinates, but only because they are as well managers. But when they want to lead, they have to sacrifice formal authoritarian charge, to guide is to have followers, and following is for all time a deliberate commotion. Telling people what to do does not encourage them to pursue leaders. They have to request to them, presenting how following them will lead to their aspirations. They must want to follow enough to end what they do and conceivably stroll into menace and situations that they would not usually mull over risking.
Leaders with a sturdy appeal find it trouble-free to pull towards them people to their foundation. As a part of their advice and influence they normally guarantee transformational reimbursements, such that their followers will not just receive extrinsic rewards but will somehow become better people. Even though many leaders have a charismatic approach to various amount, this does not necessitate a loud personality. They are always good with people and a calm style that give recognition to others (and taking blames on themselves) are very successful at creating the allegiance that great leaders provoke. (Bateman and Snell, 2005)
Usually leaders are good with people this does not mean they are gracious with them. In order to keep the air of secrecy of leadership, they often hang on to a degree of severance and detachment. This does not mean that leaders do not pay attention to tasks; actually they are often very achievement focused and oriented. What they do comprehend, however, is the magnitude of showing enthusiasm to others to work towards their revelation.
In the same revision that gives an idea about managers as risk-averse, leaders emerge as risk-seeking, though they are not sightless thrill-seekers. When trailing their vision, they deem it natural to bump into troubles and hurdles that must be trounced along their way. They are thus contented with risk and will distinguish routes that others shun as possible opportunities for benefit and will happily break rules in order to get things done efficiently and effectively.

An astounding number of these leaders had a few form of handicap in their lives which they had to overcome. Some had disturbing childhoods, some had problems such as dyslexia, others were shorter than average. This perhaps skilled them the sovereignty of mind that is needed to go out on a appendage and not worry about what others are thinking about you.
Leadership is concerned with getting people to discard their old practices and accomplish innovative things, and therefore largely promotes and talks about change, about inspiring, serving, and now and then enforcing change at all levels; individual, groups and highest of all organizational. It is said that while there can be effectual management missing ideas; there can be no proper leadership.
There is a direct connection between the way people analyze their managers and the way they execute. Well-built leadership is crucial for decisive group of people integrated into a force that serves as a ready for action business gain.
The whole balance of approach of management and systematize, from entirely authoritarian to completely participative has been defined and described earlier. It relates to society organizations, profitable enterprises, political parties and whole countries. The social values and practices originating each of the management and leadership manners are agreed upon, as are troubles they create, the indications by which they can be documented, and the customs people work together or against each other within them.

There are understandable definitions of authority and of responsibility, and how they are functional in organizations underneath diverse styles of management. The extent to which authority is impartial between top and bottom, involvement in decision- making and the corresponding style of management, still many organizations are yet to follow and implement the employee empowerment trend and a consistent organizational culture based on the diverse social subcultures breeding in the same organizational environment.
Approach of management is revealed to depend on the size of the venture and correlated to organization’s effectiveness and outcomes. The different tribulations faced by small and large firms are delineated as well as how to trounce problems of size, how to progress the effectiveness of management, and the need for teamwork.
Smaller companies are more successful than larger ones, and the efficiency of larger companies can be increased by training and employee development programs. The precision to strike is a fundamental constituent of any style of management and is defined by giving its source and influence. The leaders look at the extent to which people are permitted to hit, and at the degree to which they are able to strike, and what this indicates eventually.
The definition and development of a scaled style of management, projects how to position organizations on this and how to graph their progress in time. It is demonstrated by changes taking place in most countries of the world over the decade including some of the Asian developing nations.
Overall, the two strategies that we think will be effective in promoting an efficient organizational culture:

Promoting teamwork:
In the modern age, more and more organizations have developed the strategy of work designated to employees in form of teams where employees with complimenting capabilities come together to complete an assigned task. This not only enables the organizations to help employees by creating a learning environment but also enables the employees to cater to their social needs in form of get-togethers and parties where these employees come together informally to know each other better. This allows the employees and work teams to collaborate among themselves so as to accomplish set goal more effectively and efficiently.
The best example is of Wall Mart Stores itself where the organization’s culture itself promotes the team work and both materialistic and non-materialistic rewards are kept to keep the employees motivated at all times. The team work also allows bringing in improved creativity and innovation in the organization which is one of the major factors of the accomplishments of Wall Mart Stores.
Employee empowerment:
This is one of the most important of strategies any organization needs to adopt in order to cater to the needs of both the customers and the employees. When employees are empowered to take decision for the organization, this allows the employee to feel himself as part of the organization, thus, this feeling of being association results in the emotional involvement of the employee who then prioritizes organization’s goals over individual goals.
Wall Mart Stores has been practicing this strategy for a long time now in form of servant leadership, where the teams consisting of the members and their leader both are on the ground interacting directly with the customers and helping them in decision making while shopping. They provide extensive and comprehensive support to the customers who find it hard sometimes to decide between two similar products. These teams are well informed and professional due to which the organization has a high customer satisfaction rate which consequently, benefits the organization.

Reference:
Bateman , Thomas S , & Snell, Scott A (2005). Management: Leading & Collaborating in the Competitive World .McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Employment and Diversity. Retrieved May 30, 2008, from Wal-Mart Stores ,inc . -Employment and Diversity Web site: http://walmartstores.com/FactsNews/FeaturedTopics/?id=9

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