Managing Human Relations Essay
Definition of Human Relations In our business world today, people who enter the workforce are discovering that interpersonal skills represent a very important category of basic skills valued by employers. These skills can also help us to cope with a wide range of work-life issues and conflicts that surface in our lives. Besides that, these skills will also help us in areas such as interviewing to get a job in the future, improving our personal communication skills and building and thus maintaining productive relationships with others in the workplace.
These skills lead to a term which is known as human relations. Human relations is defined in its broadest sense which covers all types of interactions among people. These includes their conflicts, cooperative efforts, and also group relationships. Human relations is the study of why our beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours sometimes cause relationship problems in our personal lives and in work-related situations. Apart from that, human relations can also be a study of human problems arising from organizational and interpersonal relations as in an industry.
It can also be a study or a program designed to develop better interpersonal and intergroup adjustments. Human relations are important for everyone that is in the working world. It would help us to build strong relationships with others and to help us perform better in the workplace and to avoid any misunderstandings and conflicts from occurring in the future. Moreover, human relations is also an interdisciplinary field because the study of human behaviour in organizational settings draws on the fields of communications, management, psychology, and sociology.
As an example, people who enter the workforce today are discovering that interpersonal skills represent a very important category of basic skills valued by employers. It is an important field of study because all workers engage in human relations activities. The importance of human relations can be summarized as one concise law of personal and organizational achievements. Explanation on why agree or not agree with the view that all work is done through relationships In my point of view, if the view that all work is done through relationships is complemented and acknowledged, I ould fully agree with it. One of the reasons that I agree with this view is because if there are no relationships in the workplace, there would not be any communications between subordinates and managers and these will lead to a slow growth in work force and the organization would face a lot of conflicts and problems. As an effect, the organization will take a longer time to achieve success and goals and thus the organization will progress at a slow pace and will lose out to other competitors.
The importance of getting along with and working with people of all different backgrounds is essential if a person wants to thrive and survive in today’s workplace. Nowadays, many jobs in the working world are becoming unstable and there are many people getting retrenched or getting the sack easily as there is an increase in competition. Furthermore, organizations in many areas are facing layoffs and loss in labour force and are forced to close down.
This goes to show that it is solely important and a key factor to know how to work in different environments and with many types of people. As an example, if Asus wants to produce a laptop for production, they would need companies like Intel and Nvidia to provide them with the graphics card and the processor to run the laptop and have a video display for the laptop. In this case, they would have to build strong customer relationships between themselves and Intel and Nvidia so that they could supply them with the devices needed to produce the laptop.
With good relationships between the companies, they are able to create deals easily and conflicts and problems would be able to be resolved quickly. Besides that, human relations are important in all workplaces compared to a few years back. One of the reasons is because organizations are advancing more to the age of Information Technology (IT) and many things in the world nowadays are done by machines and requires a minimal amount of manpower. This will lessen the job opportunities and even those who have worked in the particular workplace will be forced to resign or quit their respective jobs.
As an effect of this, many organizations will shortlist those workers who are performing at a full pace and achieving more goals than others to remain in the company and then hand in a resignation letter for those workers who are underperforming or those who failed to achieve their goals. In order to tackle this issue, many companies nowadays spend most of their time to train their employees so that they could be better workers and would help the company to achieve more success in the future.
When the company trains their employees, the employees are expected to understand on what is required of them during the day at work. Employees are also required to continuously build relationships with their employers or managers of the company and also learn to accept the other employees which are working together with them. In addition, another major reason on why human relations is important in workplaces is because most companies are growing bigger and bigger compared to few years back. Many large companies nowadays are comprised of Chief Executive Officers (CEO) and Chief Financial Officers.
Next, they will then have regional managers, regional vice presidents or even branch managers depending on the size of the company. If we are to go further, there can also be team or sales managers and operations managers. As a manager or supervisor, they deal with employees to whom tasks are delegated. The company hired employees to achieve goals and needs. As a human being, there are basic emotional needs to be considered. These are the needs for opportunity, recognition, security, and blogging, among others.
Overall, good human relation techniques are applied, then getting the work done will be smoother and easier. Human relations is also very important in the workplace as when you are hired to a company to work in, you will have to deal and work with all kinds of people with different kinds of backgrounds and personality. If we manage to go through and manage to overcome this issue, then we will succeed in the future and we will gain mutual respect with others in the company. Furthermore, we must also know that each of us is created uniquely by God and we human beings are comprised of different talents and abilities.
So, as workers in the organisation, we should be able to understand each other abilities and weaknesses so that we could improve for the better. By this way, we are able to work on each other’s weakness and then assess ourselves and continue to work diligently for the better. Once like this, we will soon find out that we are finally able to minimize our own weaknesses and turn them into abilities. Success does not come easily for anyone but if we have the determination for it, nothing will be able to stop us from achieving it. Organisations nowadays are increasingly oriented towards service to clients, patients and customers.
We live in a service economy where relationships are often more important than products. Restaurants, hospitals, banks and public utilities must work towards retaining the patronage of their clients and customers. Besides that, many companies today are organising their workers into teams in which each employee plays a part. Organisations eager to improve quality, improve job satisfaction, increase worker participation in decision making and problem solving, and improve customer service are turning into teams. By this way, teamwork spirit is adhered from the employees.
Teamwork is one of the themes which are in the term human relations. The concept of teamwork is extremely important to the success of any team. All coaches talk about working as one unit, as a unified team. Teamwork and unselfishness create the backbone of a great team, without them a team cannot realistically compete. You can have a group of superstars, but if they do not work well as one unit, chances are they are not going to be as successful as you would think (Karlene Sugarman, 2004). The team working as one cohesive unit is going to be the key in their success.
A productive team or an organisation will have workers that share common goals, a common vision and have some level of interdependence that requires both verbal and physical interaction. Teams come into existence through shared attitudes about a particular sport. They may come together for a number of different reasons, but their goals are the same which is to achieve peak performance and experience success. The ends may differ but the means by which one gets there is the same – teamwork. Every member of the team is accountable when it comes to teamwork.
In order to do well in an organisation, I believe that all workers in the company should work together and combine their efforts as much as they can. If everyone does their job well, then it increases what the team can accomplish. This teamwork spirit has to be recognised by everyone and know that great things can happen if individuals master the fundamentals and work together as one unit. Besides that, every worker in the company should recognize that teamwork is something that must be a high priority, given constant attention and a key role for the organizational success. Workers in the company also recognize the T.
E. A. M concept which simply means Together Everyone Achieves More. The advantages and disadvantages of using e-mail What is e-mail? The term electronic mail, or in short which is known as e-mail or email, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. It can be also known as a system of world-wide electronic communication in which a computer user can compose a message at one terminal that can be regenerated at the recipient’s terminal when the recipient logs in. E-mail is very commonly used not only in the business world but in particularly every home and public facility or utility.
Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today’s email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. Although using e-mail may be an advanced system, there are a few advantages and disadvantages in it.
First, it will be the advantages of using e-mail. One of the advantages of using e-mail is that managing e-mail is easy. You are able manage all your correspondence on screen and so can your customers. Your proposal can be answered, revised, stored, and sent to others, all without reams of paper involved. Besides that, using an e-mail is also fast. It is so much faster compared to a letter. When you send an e-mail, the mail will deliver instantly from your home or office to anyone from any parts of the world. This can be a great advantage as no other method of delivery could provide this kind of delivery.
Timely buying and costly deals could be made in a blink of an eye and instantly. Furthermore, another advantage of e-mail is that e-mail is inexpensive and cheap to use. It is way cheaper compared to telephone calls, fax or even over night courier service. Once the user is online, there is no further expense required. Next, e-mail is easy to filter. The subject: line on an e-mail makes it easy to prioritize messages. The reader can identify critical correspondence quickly and deal with it immediately. Junk or unrelated messages also could be deleted instantly without even having to open it and scan through it.
By this way, it is so much better compared to hand-written mails which needs to be opened and reviewed, or voice mail which requires you to either listen to or scan all your messages for those that require immediate attention. Furthermore, the level of security in transmitting e-mail messages is very high, and the industry continues to strive to develop even tighter security levels. E-mail is usually set to private but then telephone and fax messages are not. If the address information is correct, it is a rare thing that an e-mail will go astray or to the wrong location.
Fax machines can be out of order or out of paper and this prevents an important message from being delivered in a timely manner and in proper. E-mail is an internet marketing tool that is fast, reliable, user-friendly, cheap and effective. E-mail equalises the score between the big corporations and small businesses. Not only the big corporations and large companies are able to access the big advertising houses but then small businesses including anyone can get their word out there using e-mail as the method of delivering the message.
As for the disadvantages of e-mail, when sending an e-mail to a recipient, it may cause some emotional responses to the other party. An e-mail could cause upset and anger depending on what the contents are in the e-mail. A reply in the heat of the moment or an instant reply would not work out perfectly and it will only lead to more trouble. Besides that, sending an e-mail will cause the personal touch to be lacking and it will decrease the sincerity of the sender. Nothing beats a hand written letter or mail when it comes to relationships.
The recipient may think the sender is not sincere when sending a mail expressing his or her feelings across to the recipient and would not accept it. Furthermore, e-mails could sometimes cause misunderstanding between the sender and the recipient. Some people send e-mails directly after they had finished typing it without even having another run through it. This will lead to some errors and mistakes in the e-mail and often will cause the recipient to misinterpret the e-mail for something else.
When misinterpretation happens, the sender would not get the reply that they want and it will waste more time in having to type another new e-mail to rectify the misinterpretation or even having to resend the same e-mail back to the recipient with corrections. Apart from that, another disadvantage of e-mail is that e-mails bring a lot of virus to a computer or to the desktop. For example, clicking any unknown links which originated from an unknown sender or e-mail could result in virus transferring into your own computer.
The consequences are that the computer might not be able to function properly and the virus will then corrupt files in the computer and important documents or e-mails might be lost. Last but not least, another disadvantage of e-mail is that it sucks up one’s time. Users who receive a lot of e-mails constantly would spend a lot of time checking through the e-mails and precious time may be wasted and work completed slower. Conclusion On the whole, I believe that human relations are important and essential for everyone in the working world because it would make the world a better place to work in and live in.
Not only it would bring peace, but also strong relationships could be formed between organisations and they would not be loss of jobs and work-related conflicts in the future. I would advise all managers of companies regardless of big or small corporations, private or commercial, to adapt the term human relations in themselves and practice it on a daily basis. Besides that, with good human relations, a company would be able to stroll great heights in the future and gain advantage over others in the working field.
Furthermore, workers and managers of quality and well-educated could be produced at a higher quantity from companies around the world. Good human relations not only brings success to a company but it also helps the country or to go even further, the world’s economy to better progress and stabilise to avoid recessions from occurring in the near future. It would also help in the national security as less fight or misunderstandings will occur between people. References 1. Anon. (2005) Human Relations Theory and Management [Online]. USA: Sagepub. Retrieved from: http://www. sagepub. com/upm-data/9805_039184ch02. df [Accessed 6th October 2011]. 2. Avaha1978 (2011) The Importance of Human Relation in the Workplace [Online]. Los Angeles, USA: HubPages. Retrieved from: http://avaha1978. hubpages. com/hub/The-importance-of-human-relations-in-the-workplace [Accessed 6th October 2011]. 3. Sugarman, K (2004) Understanding the Importance of Teamwork [Online]. United Kingdom: Brian Mackenzie’s Successful Coaching. Retrieved from: http://www. brianmac. co. uk/articles/scni13a2. htm [Accessed 6th October 2011]. 4. Tim Wilson (2009) Advantages and Disadvantages of E-mail [Online]. USA: Time Management Success. Retrieved from: http://www. ime-management-success. com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-email. html [Accessed 6th October 2011]. 5. Manas (2011) Human Relations Importance [Online]. India: Expertscolumn. Retrieved from: http://expertscolumn. com/content/human-relations-importance [Accessed 6th October 2011]. 6. Scott F. Geld (2003) Advantages of E-mail [Online]. Illinois, USA: DevStart Inc.. Retrieved from: http://www. promotionworld. com/e-mail/articles/advantages. html [Accessed 6th October 2011]. 7. Wikipedia (2008) E-mail [Online]. USA: Wikimedia Foundation Inc.. Retrieved from: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Email [Accessed 6th October 2011].
Managing Human Relations Essay
Management is a broad subject and time has been spent to analyse it.
The study of organisations and their management, therefore, has to proceed on a broad front. No single approach provides all answers. It is the comparative study of the different approaches, which will yield benefits to the manager. A central part of the study of the organisation and management is the development of management thinking and what may be termed management theory.
The application of theory brings about change in actual behaviour. Managers reading the work of leading writers on the subject might see in their ideas a message about how they should behave. There are different ways of categorising the various approaches elaborated by school of management theory (Figure 1).
The following two theories will be looked at in order to spot the problems caused by the management at Aussieco.
1. Classical theory 2. Human relations theoryClassical TheoryAccording to the classical writers thought the main emphasis goes on the planning of the work, the technical requirements of the organisation, principles of management and the assumption of rational and logical behaviour.
A clear understanding of the purpose of an organisation is seen as essential to recognise how the company works and how its methods of working can be improved.
Identification of general objectives would lead to the clarification of responsibilities and purposes at all levels of the organisation. Many of the classical writers were concerned with the improvement of management structure as a mean of increasing productivity.
Comparing the Classical writers thought with the actual management structure at Aussieco will prove the unstable and badly structured companys position.
Aussieco is an Australian company established in1962. The owner has been able to retain full control and ownership, acting as chairman and chief executive officer since the foundation of the business.
Although he makes most final decisions, he is not involved with the daily running of the company.
The executive managing director is the owners nephew. He is a neo-graduate with no industrial experience, completely unsuitable to cover this position.
The key person of the organisation is the general manager. His role consists of organising and supervising five subordinate sectors: administration, programming, production, design and development and sales and service.
The production manager is the busiest figure of the company, although the lowest paid. The production supervisor has a little knowledge of the day-to-day tasks of his subordinates.
Personnel management is incompetent and unable to hire the right staff. Personnel managers negligence brought the company to deal with a secretary for the drawing office who had never seen drawing before; a programmer with no experience of working with the program used in production and several others problems.
The picture described above underlines the bad situation the company is facing. Emphasis on purpose, formal structure, hierarchy of management are far away from being properly defined. Moreover, clarification of managers responsibilities is very confusing. Human Relations Theory The main emphasis of the classical writers was based on structure and formal organisation.
During 1920s, years of great depression, larger attention began to be paid to the social factor and to the employees behaviour within the organisation rather than the organisation structure itself. This is what the human relation theory is about.
Human relation at Aussieco is a big issue. The ideas concerning the importance of work groups, communications, motivation and job design are totally missing.
Staff finds little to be proud of in belonging to the company. The all process is driven by fear. The lack of communication is so high that employees are afraid to say or do something scared of loosing their job.
Workshops, the heart of the company, are unsafe and unhealthy places to work in. They are open, with no doors, cluttered and filthy. The tin roofs are without insulation and leak during heavy rains; buckets must be strategically placed to catch the water.
Management is not concerned at all about employees morale, the only worries are the operation and maintenance of the machines.
Promotions and bonuses are two words not very familiar at the company.
The organisation appears reluctant to promote its own staff. Bonuses are sometimes paid at Christmas, depending on the profitability and the whim of the owner.
Human relation writers demonstrated that people go to work to satisfy a complexity of needs and not simply for monetary reward. The verb run is very often used in the case study to emphasise the employees desire to run away from the company as soon as they can.
Figure 1-Approaches to organisation and management People management problem and management stylePeople management at Aussieco was poor and incompetent. The lack of guidance, motivation, communication and group activities have brought the company being declared bankrupt.
Beyond the money, people expect more out of their work. They wish to contribute, to see that their contribution is making a difference. Employees are willing to learn, to grow and mainly they want to feel that they are part of a successful enterprise. Workers deserve to know why they are doing something, they need input and accessibility to their managers.
The expression management style has a particular meaning in employee relations.
Style is used in a global way to refer to management overall approach to handling the relationship between the organisation and its employees.
A basic scheme of management styles was devised by Alan Fox , who drew a fundamental distinction between two contrasting management frames of reference: unitarist and pluralist.
Managers with a unitarist frame of reference make the assumption that an organisation is basically integrated and harmonious whole. At heart all organisational members, both management and employees, are seen to have a common purpose: the success of the company. Conversely, with pluralist managers the organisation is assumed to consist of a number of competing groups, all of whom have different interest to pursue. As such, there is always some potential for conflict.
A more recent and rather different method of describing styles is the one developed by John Purcell (1987).
He points out that style in employee relations can be much more a matter of strategy and policy. Therefore, management can focus on either one or both of two different aspects of the relationship between an organisation and its employees.
These are quite different dimensions of the relationship, and each one can be thought of as a continuum along which there is a range of behavioural options. (Figure 2)Figure 2-Purcell’s scheme for mapping management style The individual dimension, at one end, is concerned with the extent to which employees and individuals are regarded as important within the organisation and, at the other extreme, there are firms who are said to adopt a labour control focus. Employees tend to be viewed simply as one of the overhead costs of the business. In the middle of the continuum is what Purcell calls paternalist focus. Although there is a little emphasis on employee development and career progression, these firms have a strong sense of social responsibility and caring towards individuals.
The collectivist dimension describes the extent to which an organisation adopts the idea that employees should be involved in decisions that affect them.
At the end of the continuum are firms with an unitarist focus, where the word is used very much the same way as in Foxs scheme.
At the other end are firms with a co-operative focus, which involves very strong attempts to build constructing working relationship with collective organisations of employees, and to involve them in a wide range of decisions. In the middle are firms who are said to have adversarial focus.
It emphasises managerial prerogatives and strict attention is paid to agreements and procedures.
The individual dimension, focused on employee development, is the line that the new management should follow in order to get the best results. Managers should strongly emphasise the importance of each employee as organisational resource.
The fact that many people voluntary work unpaid overtime at Intech when a job needs completion or a new project is at a crucial stage is determined by the fact that beyond the money people wish to contribute. Therefore encouragement and help must be involved in the new organisation.
Resistance to change and management behaviourDespite the potential positive outcomes, changes are often resisted at organisational level.
Resistance to change appears to be a common phenomenon, it can take many forms and it may be difficult to identify the exact reason for the opposition. Some common reasons for individual resistance to change within the organisations can be categorised under the following headings.
? Habit. People tend to respond to situations in an established manner.
Habits may serve as a means of comfort and security and as a guide for easy decision making.
? Economic implications. People tend to resist changes that are perceived as reducing their pay or their rewards or seen as an increase in work for the same level of pay.
? Loss of freedom. There will be resistance if alterations are seen as likely to prove inconvenient, make life more difficult and reduce freedom of action.
? Security in the past. There is the tendency in some people to see security in the past and any changes may be frightening.
? Fear of the unknown. Changes tend to generate in people anxiety and fear. Transformations in the organisation may represent a degree of uncertainty.
Although organisations have to adapt to their environment, they may set up defences against changes and they prefer to concentrate on the routine things they perform well. Some of the main reasons for organisational resistance against change are described below.
? Maintaining stability. Organisations tend to maintain stability and predictability. It is very important in order to keep a formal organisation structure, rules establishment and definition of assigned responsibilities and duties.
? Investment in resources. Changes may require large resources that may already be committed to investments in other areas.
? Threats to power or influence. Change may be seen as a threat to the power or influence to a certain groups within the organisation, such as their control over decisions, resources or information.
In order to solve the problems that may occur, as a consequence of the new implementation, managers should comply with the following factors.
? Consultation and participation.
The managers should attempt to solicit the co-operation of staff and help them to feel that decisions that are taken are in their own interest.
This comes from a high level of consultation and encouragement for staff to participate in the decision making process.
Motivation is an important aspect in the operation of a control system.
Lack of positive motivation can lead to frustrated behaviour resulting in lack of commitment and poor job performance.
? Organisation structure.
The structure of an organisation can affect the implementation of control system.
Organisation structure can be distinguished in terms of two divergent system of management practice, the mechanic and the organic system.
The first is a more rigid structure and is appropriate to relatively stable conditions. It is characterised by a clear hierarchical structure of authority and closely defined duties and responsibility.
The organic system, however, is amore fluid structure and happens to be required for conditions of change and for uncertain environmental influences.
This system is characterised by a network structure of control, authority and communication, the continual adjustment and redefinition of jobs.
? Leadership style and system of management.
The style of managerial leadership is a function of the managers attitudes towards people and assumptions about human nature and behaviour, for example McGregors Theory X and Y .The main point of Theory X is direction and control through a centralised system of organisation and the exercise of authority.
By contrast, Theory Y is based on the principle of the integration of individual and organisational goals.
? Management and objectives.
A system of management by objectives may allow staff to accept greater responsibility and to make a higher level of personal contribution.
The main features of management by objectives are the setting of objectives; the specification of jobs; identification of key result areas; agreement of standard of performance; control, review and adjustment of objectives.
One of the most important factors in a successful implementation of organisational change is the style of managerial behaviour.
In certain situations and with selected members of staff, it may be necessary for management to make use of hierarchical authority and to attempt to impose change through a coercive and autocratic style of behaviour.
In most case, however, the introduction of change is more likely to be effective with an involving style of management behaviour. If the staff is kept fully informed of proposal, are encouraged to adopt a positive attitude and have personal involvement, there is a greater likelihood of their acceptance of the change.
Change in culture at Aussieco and consequent problemsA popular and simple way of defining culture is how things are done around here .
For example, Atkinson explains organisational culture as reflecting the underlying assumptions about the way work is performed, and what behaviour and actions are encouraged and discouraged.
Culture helps to explain why different groups of people perceive things in their own way and perform things differently from others groups .
Align culture within an organisation is clearly an important ingredient of effective organisational performance.
At the heart of organisation development and improved performance is the need for effective management.
It is the role of the management to act as an integrating activity and to co-ordinate, guide and direct the efforts of members towards the achievement of goals. The pervasive nature of culture as how things are done around here, common values and beliefs will have a significant effect on organisational processes such as decision making, design of structure, group behaviour, motivation and job satisfaction.
Brown suggests that organisational culture can be a powerful tool to improve performance and the key to effective leadership and organisational development.
However, it is important that effective leadership and workable organisation design and development programmes must be based on sensitivity and understanding of culture. Moreover management should create a climate in which people are motivated to work willingly and effectively.
Management have to pull Aussieco employees in the same direction Intech staff goes and their contribution should fit together to produce a whole. If these requirements are not met, managers are misdirected and their efforts are wasted.
The unequal nature of organisational life of Aussieco and Intech could cause difficulties. It may be expected that Aussieco will affect the healthy organisational environment at Intech; spoil the harmony in working relationship, loyalty and commitment to the goals and objectives of the organisation.
Conflicts could emerge as a consequence of poor communication or personality clashes. Divergences among competing groups may be seen as inevitable. Conflict is a feature of the unequal nature of organisational life and a means of bringing about change .
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