Manual for Instructional Techniques and Methods - Training Essay Example




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Chapter 1: Instruction by providing information or knowledge through the penetration of contents

–          Lecture Method

Chapter 2: Instruction by providing information or knowledge through two-way communication

–          Discussion Method

Chapter 3: Instruction by visual display of knowledge about a certain object or a process

–          Demonstration Method

Chapter 4: Instruction by the use of computer technologies as an alternative or support to classroom-based training

–          Computer-based training








Chapter 1

Instruction by providing information or knowledge through the penetration of contents

Lecture Methods

What it is

The lecture method refers to the teaching procedure that is centered upon the clarifying and explaining of a major idea. It is used in the creation of an understanding of a particular topic or to influence behavior and attitudes. It may be in a printed or oral form. It is usually given to add to the existing knowledge of the listener or to give him or her various theoretical aspects of a certain topic.

An important characteristic of such are the active and passive roles that are undertaken by the teacher and the student, respectively, while providing leeway for the student to take an occasional active role through asking questions. The trainer that usually starts sessions by outlining the aim, goal, agenda, processes or methods that will be employed throughout the whole training period is said to be using the so-called lecture method.

When to select and use it

Lecture methods are used when instructional designers need to transmit various amount of information to their audiences or a listener in a short period of time. The efficiency of lectures has always been hailed due to the ease in directing and controlling the outflow of information with precision (Hardwick 2008). Lecture methods have many variations- some may be interactive or not, depending upon the needs and the composition of the audience. The interactive lecture type is more commonly known as the feedback lecture method while the traditional lecture method is the type of lecture which has minimal audience participation.


Why it should be selected

The use of the lecture methods is popular because it is an effective means of reaching a large group at one time with a condensed, organized body of information. It usually is presented first when it is combined with other methods of training because it serves as a basis for these other methods. The techniques used in this method do not only apply to lectures, but also in other kinds of presentations and demonstrations wherein oral explanations play only a secondary, albeit still important role.

According to Segall and Wilson (2004), the lecture method has its roots in Idealist Philosophy, which furthers the contention that “only ideas are truly real because the world is forever changing.” Thus, a lecture method aims to provide the students with objective ideas of the world that are applicable in their daily lives and will further use in the formation of their own insights (Bunmi, 2008).

How it is best utilized

Nichols, a distinguished communication professor at the University of Minnesota, reports that listening is a learned skill. To be able to retain more information in a lecture, the participants or the students have to employ active listening skills, to try to anticipate the teacher’s framework for the particular lecture session and to also use the opportunity to have an interaction with the material used. Also, people only retain 10-25% of what they hear after a thirty day period, and the study shows that happening of retention is positively related to interaction. However, with minimal interaction involved in the lecture method, how are the students then able to retain the information?

There now becomes a need for the trainer to develop methods and techniques in lecturing to make trainees feel that they are ‘involved’ in the process and provide them with opportunities of interacting with one another. A trainer, using the lecture method, must be creative in providing meaningful content in an entertaining manner so that the students will be able to focus their attention, understand material and become receptive to the implementation of their new ideas in their own disciplines.

Several elocution approaches and techniques may be applied to accomplish this end such as (but not limited to): structuring presentation, repetition and restatement of critical information and its significant overriding goal, employing techniques to make the presentation be more interactive and engaging, create a psychological safe climate for the audience to make them comfortable in absorbing the ideas one conveys, employment of descriptive analogies, statistical and factual evidence from credible sources, story telling and examples- all of these may be engaged to make the dissemination of information more efficient and effective.

Related research

In a study comparing the effectiveness of the feedback lecture method with the traditional lecture method by Bello-Haas, Dal and Bazik (1999), the issue of whether or not interaction of the audience with the lecturer has an impact on the retention of the students, hence, the effectivity of teaching was tackled. Thirty six (36) freshman students who participated were assigned to two (2) different groups, the experimental (feedback lecture group) and the control (traditional lecture) group and were given reading assignments and developed package of learning to complete prior to the class. A pre-test and post-test were given thereafter. Results show that although the feedback lecture method is as effective as the traditional lecture method, with respect to outcomes, the quality of teaching of the feedback lecture method is perceived more favorably by students.




Hardwick, Mark (2008). Lecture Method of Presentation: “Boon or Bane” to Learning. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from

Bunmi, Adegbile (2008). Issues in Philosophy of Education. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from

Segall, William & Anna Victorian Wilson (2004). Introduction to Education: Teaching In a Diverse Society.  US: Rowman and Littlefield.

Bello-Haas, Vanina, Susan Bazyk and Beth Ekelman (1999). “A Study Comparing the Effectiveness of the Feedback Lecture Method with the Traditional Lecture Method” in Journal of Physical Therapy Education. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from










Chapter 2

Instruction by providing information or knowledge through two-way communication

Discussion Methods

What it is

The discussion method is a teaching method that consists of a two-way flow of communication wherein the knowledge in lecture form is transmitted to the trainees and that their understanding of such is communicated back to the trainer by the trainees. Such an understanding may be conveyed in a form of verbal and non-verbal feedback. Questions may be asked by both the trainer and the trainee. That is important so that the trainer would know whether or not he or she has been effective as a teacher because the trainee has a firm grasp of the material. If the trainee does not have any problems with understanding the concepts, such may already be employed by him or her for use or implementation. If not, it gives the trainer the opportunity to explain the material again in another way so as the trainee will be able to gain a full understanding of it.

When to select and use it

Discussion methods are often used in situations wherein the trainees need to gain more familiarity with a particular subject matter that they have background knowledge of. It is also employed to hone the trainees’ skill in thinking critically constructively and interaction while they explore all angles of a central problem (Integrated Publishing 2008). It is usually discipline-specific (Benjamin & Daniel 2000).




Why it should be selected

It is not enough that the trainees are able to grasp key concepts. They must also be able to apply these in situations that are applicable. Such requires a deep understanding of the trainee of these core concepts- their definitions, applications, problematic areas that entails further inquiry.

The discussion method which emphasizes the process of analyzing information, incorporating theory into practice and practice into theory and develop teamwork and collaborative learning would be able to address such a need of the trainee to get a deeper understanding of topics at hand (Benjamin & Daniel, 2000). If the trainer entails for the trainee to not only learn the basic concepts, but also its application, and for the trainee to develop critical thinking skills, the discussion method may be employed.

How it is best utilized

For the discussion to be reined in to revolve around the issues that the trainer would want to focus on, the trainer might initially pose several key questions. Also, if the group is significantly large in number, there is a likelihood of some to dominate while the others remain silent. To ensure that every single person in the group has the chance to speak and share his or her views, it is recommended to divide the participants into smaller units. Summary of the discussion at key intervals is best so as to ensure that trainees know that the goals of such discussion are met. The trainer must have the tact and the ability to guide the trainees from irrelevant ideas to more pertinent ones (Human Rights Education Handbook 2009).

Related research

In the study of  Owoeye (2004), the effectiveness of using the discussion method in teaching poetry on the achievement of secondary school students was put to the test. Students from two schools were chosen as participants of the study. They were all beginners in literary appreciation skills. They were divided into two groups, the experimental and the control group. The experimental group was exposed to the Discussion method. The placebo treatment was given to the control group. A pre-test of achievement was conducted, and after six months, a post-test of achievement was done. Results show that the discussion method was more effective teaching method for teaching poetry to the secondary students.




















Integrated Publishing (2008) Discussion Method. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from

Segall, William & Anna Victorian Wilson (2004). Introduction to Education: Teaching In a Diverse Society.  US: Rowman and Littlefield.

Benjamin, Ludy and Robert Daniel (2000). Handbook for Teaching Introductory Psychology. US: LEA Publishing.

Owoeye, Olubunmi (2004). The Effect of Discussion Method of Teaching Poetry of Secondary School Students. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from

Human Rights Education Handbook (2009) Effective Practices for Learning, Action and Change. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from










Chapter 3

Instruction by visual display of knowledge about a certain object or a process

Demonstration Methods

What it is

The demonstration method refers to the teaching procedure that is centered upon the description of how to do a certain procedure or task operate or use a certain object by way of showing them the processes entailed. It entails a step-by-step demonstration of procedures in a job task- if possible by using the exact same procedures. (Integrated Publishing 2008)

When to select and use it

The demonstration-performance method is employed for teaching a skill-type subject matter. This method is highly recommended for teaching a skill because it covers and goes through all the steps that are needed to be done in an effective learning order.

Why it should be selected

The demonstration method is useful to give trainees the opportunity to see and hear all the information on the skill that they are given instruction on. Such information consists of the background knowledge of the skill, the procedure involved, nomenclature, as well as safety considerations. It enables the trainees to acquire proficiency in their work because all the information is readily seen and absorbed. To sum up, the demonstration method is effective because it promotes peer learning, synergy and critical thinking (Integrated Publishing, 2008).

How it is best utilized

If the process to be taught is huge and complex, it is more advisable to break the task to be taught into smaller, easily learned parts. Thereafter, the trainer may sequentially arrange the modules and before launching into a demonstration of a certain part of a procedure, explain the necessity of the certain part or step of the procedure to the goal of accomplishing the needed task. While demonstrating the task and providing the necessary description to such simultaneously, the trainer must be careful to highlight the following: the critical aspects of the task, explain the procedure thoroughly and the rationale behind such.

For the method to be more effective, the demonstration method must be used together with the discussion or the lecture method. Also, to make the demonstration more successful, enlarged devices or training aids must be used. Subject to practicality concerns, after the demonstration, trainees must be allowed to repeat the procedure in a “hands-on” practice session to thoroughly inculcate and reinforce everything that is taught. Such must be done ideally right after the demonstration. Studies have shown that demonstrations have been most effective when trainees use the skill immediately right after the trainer has taught it. Finally, instant correction of trainees’ mistakes as well as points of improvement must be done and given respectively, to enable the students to learn the steps faster (Integrated Publishing, 2008).

Related research

A study was conducted in two schools on the effects of the use of demonstration method to the students’ academic performance in science. Two classes of fifty (50) students each from the two schools were the participants of the study.  Quasi-experimental, non-control design was used. TOPLIS (Test of Performance Level in Science) was employed to test the students’ performance in science. The two groups had to pre and post-test twenty (20) items from the aforementioned test. The results show that exposure of students to the demonstration method yielded a better performance in the test (TOPLIS).





Integrated Publishing (2008). Demonstration Method, Retrieved July 2, 2009, from

Uhumuavbi, P.O & J.A. Mamudu (2009) Relative Effects of Programmed Instruction and Demonstration Methods on Students’ Academic Performance In Science. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from
















Chapter 4

Instruction by the use of computer technologies as an alternative or support to classroom-based training

Computer-Based Training

What it is

The computer-based training or more popularly known as E-learning, is a term employed for all kinds of TELs or Technology Enhanced learning, wherein technology is utilized as support to the process of learning. The medium of instruction is done through computer technology, particularly digital technology. It is pedagogy empowered by digital technology. There is no face-to-face interaction in a number of instances that this is used (Nichols 2008).

When to select and use it

Computer-based training is used guide trainees through information or to assist them in the performance of several tasks or procedures. It is used as an alternative to classroom training to reduce costs in travel, make quality education more affordable to a lot of people and to give flexibility and to make learning convenient to students because they are not compelled to go to classes at a certain time of the day. It is also used as support for classroom based training.

Why it should be selected

Computer-based learning and Computer Based training makes the computer a necessary component to learning.

In Computer-based learning or CBL, computers may take the place of the teacher. It feeds information to the trainee through the computer programs. For Computer-based training or CBTs, the student learns by way of execution of special training programs on a computer in relation to their occupation or industry. The computer provides “simulation” of situations that the trainee may encounter in the workplace, and provides him or her with an arena to practice her know-how, skills and correct his or her mistakes in a simulated computer environment. All of these provide the trainee with the necessary information and skills with the comfort and ease.

How it is best utilized

The computer-based method may be best utilized through a combination of good technology and pedagogy. Proper orientation prior to the embarking of the trainee in an online course and the trainee’s participation in an online virtual community, as well as instructor contact also help attain the objectives of employing such method in learning (Zhao et al 2005).

Related research

The compilation of case studies by Russell (2001) dealt on the issue of effectiveness of learning employing differing modes of online and classroom-based instruction. Results of those many case studies show that the online equivalents are seen to be almost as effective as that of the experience of the on-campus student in terms of learning.













Nichols, M. (2008). E-Learning in Context. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from—e-learning-in-context.pdf

Russel, Thomas (2001). The No Significant Difference Phenomenon. US: IDECC.

Zhao, Y., Lei, J., Lai, B. Y. C., & Tan, H. S. (2005). What makes the difference? A practical analysis of research on the effectiveness of distance education. Teachers College Record 107(8), 1836-1884.


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