Mao Tse Tung Essay, Research Paper
Mao was born in 1893 into a peasant household in the small town of Shaoshan in Hunan state. His male parent was a rigorous martinet and Mao often rebelled against his authorization. Mao & # 8217 ; s early instruction was in the Confucian classics of Chinese history, literature, and doctrine, but early instructors besides exposed him to the thoughts of progressive Confucian reformists. In 1911 Mao moved to the provincial capital, Changsha, where he briefly served as a soldier in Republican ground forces in the 1911 revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty.
While in Changsha, Mao read plants on Western doctrine ; he was besides greatly influenced by progressive newspapers and by diaries such as New Youth.
In 1918, after graduating from the Hunan Teachers College in Changsha, Mao traveled to Beijing and obtained a occupation in the Beijing University library under the caput librarian, Li Dazhao. Mao joined Li & # 8217 ; s analyze group that explored Marxist political and societal idea and he became an devouring reader of Marxist Hagiographas.
During the May Fourth Movement of 1919, when pupils and intellectuals called for China & # 8217 ; s modernisation, Mao published articles knocking the traditional values of Confucianism. He stressed the importance of physical strength and mental self-control in the battle against tradition. In Beijing, he besides met and married his first married woman, Yang Kaihui, a Beijing University pupil and the girl of Mao & # 8217 ; s high school instructor. ( When Mao was 14 his male parent had arranged a matrimony for him with a local miss, but Mao ne’er recognized this matrimony. )
Rise to Power
In 1920 Mao returned to Changsha, where his effort to form a democratic authorities for Hunan state failed. He traveled to Shanghai in 1921 and was present at the establishing meeting of the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP ) , which was besides attended by Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu. Mao so founded a CCP subdivision in Hunan and organized workers & # 8217 ; work stoppages throughout the state. At this clip warlords controlled much of northern China. To get the better of the warlords, the Kuomintang ( KMT ) party of Sun Yat-sen allied with the CCP in 1923. Mao joined the KMT and served on its Central Committee, although he maintained his CCP rank.
In 1925 Mao organized peasant brotherhoods in his hometown of Shaoshan. Because of his provincial background, he was named manager of both the CCP and KMT Peasant Commissions in 1926. In 1927 Mao wrote a paper titled & # 8220 ; Report on an Probe of the Peasant Movement in Hunan, & # 8221 ; in which he declared that provincials would be the chief force in the revolution. Because this point of view was contrary to Orthodox Marxism, which held that workers were the footing for revolution, and because peasant rebellion would estrange the KMT, the CCP rejected Mao & # 8217 ; s thoughts.
The KMT broke with the CCP in 1927 and KMT leader Chiang Kai-shek, who had taken control of the KMT after Sun Yat-sen & # 8217 ; s decease in 1925, launched a violent purging against the Communists. In conflicts that became known as the Autumn Harvest Uprising, Mao led a little provincial ground forces in Hunan against local landlords and the KMT. His forces were defeated and Mao retreated south to cragged Jiangxi state where he established a basal country in 1929 known as the Jiangxi Soviet. There Mao experimented with rural land reform and recruited military personnels for the Communist military, known as the Red Army. Working with Red Army general Zhu De, Mao developed new guerilla warfare tactics that drew the KMT forces deep into the hostile countryside, where they were harassed by provincials and destroyed by the Red Army. Mao married He Zizhen while in Jiangxi, after his first married woman was killed by KMT forces.
Chiang was determined to extinguish the Communists and in 1934 intensified his extinction run, environing the Jiangxi Soviet. Mao and his followings burst through Chiang & # 8217 ; s obstruct and began the 9600-km ( 6000-mi ) Long March to the distant small town of Yan & # 8217 ; an in northern China. Along the manner the marchers stopped at Zunyi, where top Communist functionaries met to discourse the CCP & # 8217 ; s hereafter. Those opposed to Mao & # 8217 ; s program of peasant rebellion and Chinese military scheme were criticized, while Mao and his protagonists gained power and prestigiousness. The Zunyi Conference, as the meeting became known, was a important turning point in Mao & # 8217 ; s dominance to CCP leading.
From his base in Yan & # 8217 ; an, Mao led Communist opposition against the Nipponese, who had invaded Manchuria in 1931 and China in 1937. Although the CCP temporarily allied once more with the KMT to hold Nipponese aggression, most opposition against the Japanese in northern China came from the Communists. The CCP skilfully organized the peasantry and built up the ranks of the Red Army. Mao farther consolidated his leading over the CCP in 19
42 by establishing a “Rectification” run against CCP members who disagreed with him. Among these were “returned Bolshevik” Wang Ming, who had studied in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ) , and others, such as the authors Wang Shiwei and Ding Ling. Besides while in Yan’an, Mao divorced He Zizhen and married the histrion Lan Ping, who would go known as Jiang Qing and play an progressively of import function in the party after 1964.
In 1945, shortly after Japan surrendered in World War II, civil war broke out between CCP and KMT military personnels. The CCP, who had mass provincial support and a well-disciplined Red Army, defeated the KMT in 1949. On October 1 Mao declared the initiation of the People & # 8217 ; s Republic of China ( PRC ) in Tian & # 8217 ; an Men Square in Beijing.
Mao and the CCP inherited a destitute state that was scarred by war and in political confusion. As president of the CCP, Mao directed the PRC & # 8217 ; s Reconstruction. Following the USSR theoretical account for building a socialist society, Mao ordered the redistribution of land, the riddance of landlords in the countryside, and the constitution of heavy industry in the metropoliss. Throughout this period Mao relied to a great extent on assistance and expertness from the USSR. The United States became Mao & # 8217 ; s enemy, peculiarly in the Korean War ( 1950-1953 ) in which about 1 million Chinese soldiers died contending for North Korea, including Mao & # 8217 ; s ain boy, Mao Anying. Mao feared enemy infiltration and sought to guarantee political integrity in China. Mao launched several mass runs to root out treasonists and corruptness, including the & # 8220 ; Suppression of the Counterrevolutionaries, & # 8221 ; the & # 8220 ; Three-Anti, & # 8221 ; and the & # 8220 ; Five-Anti & # 8221 ; runs. The runs, which involved intense probe into people & # 8217 ; s personal lives, left few Chinese citizens untasted. In the & # 8220 ; Hundred Flowers & # 8221 ; motion of 1957, Mao encouraged intellectuals to knock the CCP, believing the unfavorable judgment would be minor. When it was non, he launched the & # 8220 ; Antirightist & # 8221 ; run, rapidly turning on those who had spoken out, labeling them as right-winger, and incarcerating or expatriating many.
Mao & # 8217 ; s early experiences with peasant revolution convinced him of the huge potency of peasant strength. He believed that if decently organized and inspired, the Chinese multitudes could carry through astonishing efforts. Get downing in the mid-1950s Mao advocated the rapid formation of agricultural communes, reasoning that the energy of the people could assist China accomplish a high tide of Communist development. This political orientation exploded in the Great Leap Forward in 1958. Mao called upon all Chinese to prosecute in avid physical labour to transform the economic system and catch the West in industrial and agricultural production within a few old ages. Afraid to let down their leaders, provincials falsified grain production Numberss. Several hapless crops caused monolithic dearth and the deceases of 1000000s of people throughout China.
Mao & # 8217 ; s policies had failed, but those in the authorities who criticized him straight, such as Peng Dehuai, were humiliated and purged from office. Criticism of Mao from outside the authorities was besides muted because the educated elite remembered the convulsion of the & # 8220 ; Hundred Flowers & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; Antirightist & # 8221 ; runs of 1957. Mao & # 8217 ; s relationship with intellectuals was an uneasy one, and he was critical of the spread between the lives of the urban educated elite and the rural multitudes. These tensenesss were among the implicit in causes of the Cultural Revolution, a period of societal unrest and political persecution launched by Mao in 1966. Mao mobilized youth into the Red Guards to assail his political challengers, including his chosen replacement, Liu Shaoqi. With the aid of Lin Biao, the leader of the People & # 8217 ; s Liberation Army, Mao established himself as a godlike cult figure. All Chinese were encouraged to read the Citations of Chairman Mao ( known as Mao & # 8217 ; s Little Red Book ) , and Mao & # 8217 ; s Hagiographas were elevated to an infallible philosophical system called & # 8220 ; Mao Zedong Thought. & # 8221 ; Although Mao became widely revered, his Cultural Revolution policies led to cataclysmic decease and devastation throughout China. He died of Parkinson & # 8217 ; s disease on September 9, 1976. At the National Party Congress in 1977, the CCP declared the Cultural Revolution to hold officially ended in October 1976.
After Mao & # 8217 ; s decease his record was reevaluated by his replacement Deng Xiaoping. Mao was praised for his parts in the opposition against Japan and the initiation of the People & # 8217 ; s Republic, but criticized for his errors in the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. While many Chinese vilify Mao for his ferociousness, he is besides admired for his power and his function as one of the most influential historical figures in the twentieth century. His remains are enshrined in a mausoleum in
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