This chapter consists of the related studies and literature in local and foreign settings. The fact that vocabulary is an important component of reading comprehension for all readers has been well established. Much of the research into vocabulary learning strategies has been aimed at determining the most effective vocabulary memorization techniques. In these articles and studies, it shows several specific strategies and researches that supports our study.
McAndrew (2008) presents that vocabulary development is a necessity and essential especially on College Students and University Students. He also claims that there are so many reasons why increasing college and university vocabulary is important in relation to college and university exams, the Graduate Record Examination (GRE); the SAT; the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT); and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The article emphasizes that vocabulary development is required by a wide cross section of society.
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Cohen (2008) noted that one way to improve your vocabulary is to hear it. This article shows that vocabulary building can occur via listening, even when the listener is exposed to a minimal amount of new words. He also point that just by listening, even without repetition, which is a noted way of building vocabulary, vocabulary development can occur. And that it is also necessary for learners both English as a second language learners and native speakers to hear English before actually reading the words.
In relation to this, a study by Vidal revealed that students who listened just 3 lectures demonstrated reasonable increases in vocabulary. It is suggested that listening could substitute for reading in regards to increasing vocabulary, and that when used with interactive teaching exposure to audio increases vocabulary development.
Gao & Santos (2007) stated that with the ever increasing ease at which
our lives transcend international borders, developing vocabulary knowledge is a fundamental aspect to achieve our goals and succeed in diverse environments.
This article is mainly about improving English vocabulary by TOEFL (The Test of English as a Foreign Language) which is perhaps the most widely recognized English as a second language test in the world. TOEFL is a test where we can know a student’s capacity for being able to communicate effectively in English at the tertiary education level. The student or prospective student is required to demonstrate what English vocabulary have they developed. This test I widely accepted, with more than 6,000 institutions and 130 countries accepting the examination.
Moreover, the need to improve English vocabulary in order to work, conduct business, or study overseas can appear to be a difficult process. With assistance of software specifically designed with learning principles and the TOEFL in mind, it can be an easy goal to achieve.
Readence, Bean & Baldwin (1998) this article presents verbal-visual word association strategy as one way of helping secondary students increase their vocabulary knowledge in a fashion they find engaging enough to share with others.
The article emphasizes that verbal-visual word association strategy help students more beyond the note memorization of words and their definitions. It was further refined to include a visual dimension in support of a words definition and the reader’s personal association with the word.
Furthermore, the journal shows that verbal-visual strategy is the most often used strategy which students to use their strengths were more comfortable with the sequential. Verbal part of the strategy involving definitions and example. The journal concludes that vocabulary learning through personal association or analogies becomes relational rather than note.
Related Local Literature
Jolongo & Sobolak (2011) stated that all students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive vocabulary at home and school each year in order to support their growth in literacy. Both of them conclude that students from low socio-economic backgrounds and those who speak English as a second language are particularly at risk of failing to make proficient vocabulary gains. However, they both find a solution to this problem.
They propose the most effective way for early childhood educators, to enhance the vocabulary fluency of all students is to implement evidence-based strategies for teaching vocabulary. A key finding in the research is that young children need to be actively engaged in vocabulary development if they are to remember new words and begin to grasp the multiple, nuanced meanings of words. Other effective vocabulary instruction practices include meaningful repetition; combining the enactive, iconic and symbolic modes; and reading aloud in a dialogue style.
Bernardo & Gonzales (2009) attempted to compare the strategies used by the subjects across disciplines and to uncover if significant differences existed as regards the category and frequency of the VLS. A researcher-designed inventory using Schmitt’s taxonomy was used to gather pertinent data. The data on the frequencies of use of the five identified VLS namely: Determination, Social, Memory, Cognitive, and Metacognitive were compared to explore apparent differences
Findings revealed statistically significant differences in the use of determination and social VLS across the disciplines. Another finding exhibited non-significant differences in the employment of memory, cognitive, and metacognitive VLS. The results also showed that the identified vocabulary learning strategies converged with each other. Correlation analysis also showed significant positive association between the VLS. This research could be best used by language faculty as means to improve students’ vocabulary learning and acquisition.