This assignment will also cover several kinds of management theories and leadership styles. Decision-making, problem solving, conflict and conflict resolution methods are reflected in each management theories and leadership styles respectively. On the second part, the concept of quality control and the use of quality control techniques also will be discussed. II. Management Theories 1. Scientific Management The term scientific management is the combination of two words i. e. scientific and management.
The word "Scientific" means systematic analytical and objective approach while "management" means getting things done through others. Swati Gupta (2001) In a nutshell, scientific management means the application of principles and methods of science in the field of management. It is the art of knowing exactly what is to be done by whom it is to be done and what is the best and cheapest way of doing it. Prior to scientific management, work was performed by skilled craftsman who had learned their jobs in lengthy apprenticeships. They made their own decisions about how their job was to be performed.
Scientific management took away much of this autonomy and converted skilled crafts into a series of simplified jobs that could be performed by unskilled workers who easily could be trained for the tasks. The four objectives of management under scientific management were as follows: * The development of a science for each element of a man's work to replace the old rule-of-thumb methods. * The scientific selection, training and development of workers instead of allowing them to choose their own tasks and train themselves as best they could. The development of a spirit of hearty cooperation between workers and management to ensure that work would be carried out in accordance with scientifically devised procedures. * The division of work between workers and the management in almost equal shares, each group taking over the work for which it is best fitted instead of the former condition in which responsibility largely rested with the workers. Self-evident in this philosophy are organizations arranged in a hierarchy, systems of abstract rules and impersonal relationships between staff.
Taylor’s system ensured the most efficient way to be used by all workers, therefore making the work process standard. Invariably managers found that maximal efficiency was achieved by a subdivision of labour. This subdivision entailed breaking the workers tasks into smaller and smaller parts. In short, “specifying not only what is to be done but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it” (Taylor 1998, p. 17). George Ritzer in his book “The McDonaldization of Society” notes a similar philosophy in a McDonald’s staff manual, “It told operators, precise cooking times for all products and temperature settings for all equipment.
It specified that French fries be cut at nine-thirty-seconds thick. Workers were instructed to put hamburgers down on the grill moving left to right, creating six rows of six patties each” (Ritzer 2000, p. 38). In many ways McDonalds is the archetypical example of an organization employing Scientific Management in production. Within this restaurant chain, uniformity is complete; no matter what country you are in every branch of McDonalds is the same, as are the methods used to prepare food, clean floors, promote staff and lock up on closing.
It is this ability to efficiently supply standard food and service throughout the world that has allowed McDonalds to become the biggest restaurant chain on the planet (Peters and Waterman 1982, p. 173-174). 2. Organisational behaviour Organizational behaviour (OB) is the study of human behaviour in organizational settings, how human behaviour interacts with the organization, and the organization itself. Delta Publishing Company (2006) Although we can focus on any one of these three areas independently, we must remember that all three are ultimately connected and necessary for a comprehensive understanding of organizational behaviour.
For instance, we can study individual behaviour such as the behaviour of a company’s CEO or of one of its employees without explicitly considering the organization. But because the organization influences and is influenced by the individual, we cannot fully understand the individual’s behaviour without knowing something about the organization. Similarly, we can study an organization without focusing specifically on each individual within it. But again, we are looking at only one piece of the puzzle. Eventually, we must consider the other pieces to understand the whole.
Exhibit 1 illustrates this view of organizational behaviour. It shows the linkages among human behaviour in organizational settings, the individual-organization interface, the organization, and the environment surrounding the organization. Each individual brings to an organization a unique set of personal characteristics, experiences from other organizations, and personal background. Therefore, organizational behaviour must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting. But individuals do not work in isolation.
They come in contact with other people and with the organization in a variety of ways. Points of contact include managers, co-workers, the formal policies and procedures of the organization, and various changes implemented by the organization. Over time, the individual changes as a function of both personal experiences and maturity and of work experiences with the organization. The organization, in turn, is affected by the presence and eventual absence of the individual. Clearly, then, the study of organizational behaviour must consider the ways in which the individual and the organization interact.
An organization, of course, exists before a particular person joins it and continues to exist long after he or she has left. Therefore, the organization itself represents a crucial perspective from which to view organizational behaviour. An understanding of factors such as the performance evaluation and reward systems, the decision-making and individual human behaviour in organizational settings, the individual organization interface the organization and the design of the firm itself can provide additional insight into why some people decide to stay while others elect to leave.
Singapore Airline clearly demonstrated its understanding of OB as she remains focused on its people development policies to forge ahead in challenging times. The learning framework for staff continues to emphasise alignment with the Company’s competency framework, to pursue improvements in productivity and promote continuous skills upgrading. As such, The Airline has maintained its appeal as an employer in the job market.
In 2011, it was voted one of the top five private employers of choice in a survey of fresh local graduates by campus recruitment specialist Jobs Factory, an award it has retained for four consecutive years. (Singapore Airlines Annual Report 2011/2012) III. Leadership Styles 1. Contingency Theory The essence of contingency theory is that best practices depend on the contingencies of the situation. Contingency theory is often called the “it all depends” theory, because when you ask a contingency theorist for an answer, the typical response is that it all depends.
While this may sound simplistic, assessing the contingencies on which decisions depend can be very complex. Contingency theorists try to identify and measure the conditions under which things will likely occur. The term contingency as used in contingency theory is similar to its use in direct practice. A contingency is a relationship between two phenomena. If one phenomenon exists, then a conclusion can be drawn about another phenomenon. For example, if a job is highly structured, then a person with a freewheeling disposition will have problems with the job.
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory shows the relationship between the leader’s orientation or style and group performance under differing situational conditions. The theory is based on determining the orientation of the leader (relationship or task), the elements of the situation (leader-member relations, task structure, and leader position power), and the leader orientation that was found to be most effective as the situation changed from low to moderate to high control.
Fiedler found that task oriented leaders were more effective in low and moderate control situations and relationship oriented managers were more effective in moderate control situations. 2. Team Leadership In definition, team leadership refers to the leadership practices and values exhibited by leaders, governing a specific group of individuals who are working towards achieving a particular goal or objective. A team would not be able to function as a whole without the governance, authority, and effective interaction with a good leader.
In this regard, leadership is a function more than a role, and can refer to both the process of leading and to those entities that do the leading. In team leadership, the role of the team leader becomes crucial, as he or she is one who facilitates the processes, the tasks, the working relationships, and the goals, priorities, needs, and achievements of the whole team. Team leadership is an important element in maintaining a good team, for it enables the group or team to effectively and efficiently work with one another, in its aim to achieve its common goals and objectives.
Good team leadership would not be effective without the use of different leadership styles, which would be helpful in enabling the team leader to adapt to several situations, crises, and types of individuals in a team. Goleman (2000) emphasizes six leadership styles that can be adopted by a team leader to effectively manage his or her team, as follows: * Authoritative or Charismatic leadership, * Affiliative leadership, * Democratic leadership, * Coaching leadership, * Pacesetting leadership, * Coercive leadership.
The Authoritative or Charismatic leadership style is the most effective in driving up every aspect of climate, and is used by a team leader to motivate individuals by making clear to them that their work fits to a larger vision of the team. The Affiliative type of leadership is being used by team leaders when they try to build team harmony, increase morale, improve communication, or repair broken trust, as praise is used freely. The Democratic leadership helps the team leader to spend time getting the team members' ideas, thus, building trust, respect and commitment.
However, the process of decision-making may take a lot of time, to be able to ensure that all ideas are being heard and suggestions accommodated. A team leader who helps staff understand their strengths and weaknesses is using the Coaching leadership style, thus, helping them tie these traits into their personal and teaching goals. In the Pacesetting leadership, the leader is fanatical about extremely high performance levels at all times, thus, leading the team through his or her performance.
The Coercive leader demands compliance from every member of the team, where dissent is not well tolerated. Despite the number and the variety of leadership styles, it must be understood that team leadership would be most effective with the combination of a number of these leadership styles, for the use of only one leadership style is not enough to answer to the needs of team members, especially in response to problems and crises at hand. SIA’s senior management has identified five interrelated and mutually supportive elements behind Team leadership management strategy.
Together with the leadership and role modelling of its top management, these five elements are an important part of the explanation of how SIA has managed to consistently deliver cost-effective service excellence for over three decades through the effective and strategic management of one of its greatest assets – which is its human resources. Singapore Airlines ( 2000 ) As shown in Figure 5–1, these five elements are stringent selection and recruitment of people, extensive training and retraining of employees, formation of successful service delivery teams, empowerment of front-line staff, and motivation of employees.
These elements are emphasized in successful human resource management, especially in the field of strategic human resource management, and they have been shown to lead to higher company performance. SIA has been able to implement them successfully. IV. Quality Control Quality control (QC) is a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a manufactured product or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the requirements of the client or customer. QC is similar to, but not identical with, quality (QA).
QA is defined as a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a product or service under development (before work is complete, as opposed to afterwards) meets specified requirements. QA is sometimes expressed together with QC as a single expression, quality assurance and control (QA/QC). In order to implement an effective QC program, an enterprise must first decide which specific standards the product or service must meet. Then the extent of QC actions must be determined (for example, the percentage of units to be tested from each lot).
Next, real-world data must be collected (for example, the percentage of units that fail) and the results reported to management personnel. After this, corrective action must be decided upon and taken (for example, defective units must be repaired or rejected and poor service repeated at no charge until the customer is satisfied). If too many unit failures or instances of poor service occur, a plan must be devised to improve the production or service process and then that plan must be put into action.
Finally, the QC process must be on-going to ensure that remedial efforts, if required, have produced satisfactory results and to immediately detect recurrences or new instances of trouble. Total Quality Management (TQM) Total Quality Management (TQM) is an integrated system of principles, methods, and best practices that provide a framework for organizations to strive for excellence in everything they do. Total Quality Engineering INC (2000-2010) The simplest model of TQM is shown in this diagram. The model begins with understanding customer needs.
TQM organizations have processes that continuously collect, analyse, and act on customer information. Activities are often extended to understanding competitor's customers. Developing an intimate understanding of customer needs allows TQM organizations to predict future customer behaviour. TQM organizations integrate customer knowledge with other information and use the planning process to orchestrate action throughout the organization to manage day to day activities and achieve future goals. Plans are reviewed at periodic intervals and adjusted as necessary. The planning process is the glue that holds together all TQM activity.
TQM organizations understand that customers will only be satisfied if they consistently receive products and services that meet their needs, are delivered when expected, and are priced for value. TQM organizations use the techniques of process management to develop cost-controlled processes that are stable and capable of meeting customer expectations. The final element of the TQM model is total participation. TQM organizations understand that all work is performed through people. This begins with leadership. In TQM organizations, top management takes personal responsibility for implementing, nurturing, and refining all TQM activities.
They make sure people are properly trained, capable, and actively participate in achieving organizational success. Management and employees work together to create an empowered environment where people are valued. All of the TQM model's elements work together to achieve results and ultimately to achieve the ISO certification which is a recognition of the product quality. Quality Circle Quality Circles are (informal) groups of employees who voluntarily meet together on a regular basis to identify, define, analyse and solve work related problems.
Usually the members of a particular team (quality circle) should be from the same work area or who do similar work so that the problems they select will be familiar to all of them. In addition, interdepartmental or cross functional quality circles may also be formed. An ideal size of quality circle is seven to eight members. But the number of members in a quality circle can vary. Quality circles run in many tourism organisations. For example, Marina Bay Sands Hotel has set up a steering Committee comprising a facilitator and QC team leader to enhance their service quality.
Usually QCs are formed by nomination/voluntary enrolment from QC members. Both QC members and non-participating employees are being trained by an expert consultant. QC resolved problems through standardized techniques and brain storming. After which, QC presents their solutions to the management and finally being evaluated for implementation. V. Conclusion This assignment taught me the different types of management theories and styles. I have also understood in depth the Scientific Management, Organisational Behaviour, Contingency Theory and Team Leadership.
In addition, in my research, I found out how these theories and styles were used in tourism organisations such as McDonalds and Singapore Airlines. I also learnt about quality control and the methods of quality control which affects most organisations. I now understand what are SQC and TQM and their importance to organisation in improving their products. Word Count : 2730 VI.
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