Media portrayal of fashion: effects on women: An annotated bibliography

Media portrayal of fashion:  effects on women:

An annotated bibliography

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Bardone-Cone, Anna M and Kamila Cass.  “Investigating the impact of pro-anorexia websites: a pilot study.” European Eating Disorders Review 14.4 (Jul/Aug2006): 256-262

These researchers conducted a study in which young women were were randomly assigned to view one of three websites.  They were a pro-anorexia website, a fashion website using average-sized models and a website about home decoration.  The women then completed a survey about mood.  The results showed that women who viewed the pro anorexia website had lower self-esteems and found thin to be highly desirable than those that viewed the fashion or home décor websites.  The researchers concluded that these sites could alter the thinking of these women, making them feel like average-sized was actually overweight.

Bissell, Kimberly L.  “Skinny Like You: Visual Literacy, Digital Manipulation and Young Women’s Drive to be Thin.” Simile 6.1 ( Feb. 2006): 4

This article reviews the numerous publications in the fashion and entertainment industry which supports extremely thin female figures.  These lead to eating disorders in some women.  The article then explains the processes of digital manipulation in these fashion images which actually create a model who is thinner in the magazine than she is in real life.

The researchers attempted to figure out if college students understood digital imaging in general or if college students understood the use of digital imaging in fashion photography. They reinforce the link in eating disorders among younger women and the lack of education of visual literacy as it pertains to the digital manipulation present in fashion magazines.

Body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, fashion magazines, and clothes: A cross‐cultural comparison between Australian and Italian young women.

Images

Bloch, Lucienne S. Sounding the Territory.  Raritan 28.1 (Summer 2008): 98-112

This article reminisces upon the author’s memory of a character known as Mrs. Exeter as presented in Vogue magazine.  This character represented the woman nearing sixty who was plumpish but also very fashionable, social and interested in charity work.  There was little stigma attached with being plump at that age and the author remembers Mrs. Exeter as in tune with her body.

She continues to discuss the banning of Mrs. Exeter from Vogue and the new emphasis on body – liposuction, plastic surgery and expensive ant-aging products.  She hope that Mrs. Exeter will make a return so that women can be comfortable with their aging bodies and still feel fashionable and sociable while also dealing with her father’s impending dementia.

Chow, Jean.  “Adolescents’ perceptions of popular teen magazines.” Journal of Advanced Nursing 48.2 (Oct. 2004): 132-139.

This article focuses on how teenagers react to messages about health issues in teen magazines.  Teen women purchase these magazines in huge numbers, and they have an great influence on adolescent women and the way they interpret the world and their own lives.  Basically, the media wanted to know how the adolescent women used these magazines for information about health, including their own body image.

The researchers found that messages dealing with perfection in appearance were very influential in these young women and that these magazines make this image look easy to attain for young women.  The researcher goes on to say that the magazines also promote the idea that this ideal appearance can lead to male attention which these young girls find desirable.

Dittmr, Helga and Sarah Howard.  “Professional hazards? The impact of models’ body size on advertising effectiveness and women’s body-focused anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of thinness.” British Journal of Social Psychology 43.4  (Dec. 2004):  477-497

This study focused on how body images and size in fashion magazines affects women of various ages and of different professions.  While all professions showed a decrease in body image when viewing thin fashion models images rather than average size model images or no models, just fashion, women in professions that did not focus on fashion and appearance had less of a negative reaction to the thin models than women in appearance-focused professions.

Heiland, Teresa L., Darrin Murray and Paige Edley. Body image of dancers in Los Angeles: the cult of slenderness and media influence among dance students. Research in Dance Education.  9.3 (Dec 2008): 257-275

The stories of teenage and young adult dancers in Hollywood California are presented.  These dances were give eating disorder screenings and interviewed as to the pressures to stay slim.  The Hollywood film culture seemed to contribute to the body image struggles suffered by these girls.  The study suggests that there should be some sort of intervention for these girls to help them deal with these pressures.

The authors are researchers at Loyola-Marymount University in Los Angelos, California and have conducted many studies and research in this area.

Nemeroff, Carol J, Richard Stein, Nancy Diehl and Karen Smilacki.  : From the Cleavers to the Clintons: Role Choices and Body Orientation as Reflected in Magazine Article Content.” International Journal of Eating Disorders 16.2 ( Sep. 1994): 167-176

This article examine the attack that the media has come under in recent decades in relation to the body image and self-esteem of women.  It seeks to support that trend has emerged in the last 10 years or so to focus on fitness rather than thinness in these magazines.  They also note that differing audiences of these magazines can produce different results.

The study examines for type of articles found in these magazines, which were typed as traditional, high fashion and modern magazines for both men and women.  They studied audience response to the different article types in the different magazines over a 12 year period.  They found that women did respond more to body image articles that seemed to, overall, continue to focus on weight-loss and thinness much more than men’s articles did.

Sypeck, Mia Foley, James Gray and Anthony Ahrens.  “No longer just a pretty face: Fashion magazines’ depictions of ideal female beauty from 1959 to 1999.” International Journal of Eating Disorders 36.3 (Nov. 2004): 342-347

This article traces the fashion industry’s depiction of the ideal feminine image of beauty and body type for four decades – 1949 to 1999.  The researches examined the fashion cover models that were featured on the four most popular fashion magazines in America for those years – Cosmopolitan, Mademoiselle, Glamour and Vogue.

They found that the largest decline in body image occurred in the 80s and 90s, but that the focus on the full body increased steadily during all four years.  They surmise that this emphasis on the entire body of the model could contribute to eating disorders and low body image in American women.

Tiggemann, Marika , Anna Verri and Sabrina Scaravaggi. “ Body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, fashion magazines, and clothes: A cross‐cultural comparison between Australian and Italian young women.”International Journal of Psychology 40.5 (Oct. 2005):  293-302

This study seeks to examine the impact of fashion magazines, fashion magazine models and body image on women in both Italy and Australia.  The researchers hoped to find a correlation between these women and American women.

The researchers found that clothes were of varying social importance for Australian and Italian women with Italian women scoring lower on body dissatisfaction instruments than Australian women.  They hope to further analyze these comparisons and find reasons why Italian women seem less affected by the presentation of body image in fashion magazines than Australian and American women.

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