Mental health nursing - Nursing Essay Example

This assignment was done in order produce a material for discussion regarding the choice of picking Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model (CBT) for the author - Mental health nursing introduction. This is in accordance with the author’s Problem Based Learning I (PBL1) assessment wherein the CBT will be used to analyze the case of a patient. This assessment was based on the responses of the patient to a set of specific questions given by the author in order to analyze the situation, tracing the roots or origin of the patient’s case and its possible implications. Further discussion regarding the case of the client will be done, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of CBT to the patient’s case, looking closely at his mental and health requirements. The character of the patient will be held anonymously so as not to expose his true identity.

 

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The patient stated that he was suffering from a bad case depression wherein there are moments that he is emotionally unstable, with feelings of loneliness and sadness occurring inside him without actually having a reason to do so. He was also suffering from serious visual and auditory hallucinations, wherein he sees things and hears voices. He is yet to uncover about the voices he is hearing so that is all for that matter. The patient believes that these things are happening to him because of faulty releases of chemicals in his brains which inhibit these feelings and hallucinations. He also confided that their family have a history of mental illness, wherein his mother was treated in a mental hospital, and for a dad, his was an alcoholic, wherein his dependence in alcohol was acute beyond treatment. He also opened up saying that the deep emotional depressions are often the output of his worrying about his father, thinking about death and his future life. As for the intake of illicit substance, he denied taking drugs or other illegal substances, but readily admitted taking alcohol at times. He thinks that the voices he was hearing were from people doing black magic on him, cursing him to hear things, and bothering him even more. He also connected the happenings to his failed marriage saying that his former wife and her mother were the ones cursing him and making suffer that much.

 

In order to asses the situation completely the author conducted three sets of interviews which include the patient himself, the named nurse handling the patient’s case and the approved social worker. The questions given were then carefully analyzed depending on the answers and responses of the interviewees, and the various conceptual models; all to aid the recovery of the patient. CBT is chosen as the overall model because it suits the patient’s case essential for his treatment and recovery.

 

According to NACBT Online, the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy model emphasizes on the important part played by thinking on how we feel and what we do, basically, our emotions and our actions. If you possess a healthy brain, then the way we act and feel all depends on how we think we are feeling. “Therefore, if we are experiencing unwanted feelings and behaviors, it is important to identify the thinking that is causing the feelings / behaviors and to learn how to replace this thinking with thoughts that lead to more desirable reactions (Pucci, 2006).” We must be able to point out the root or the source of this thinking that comes into our minds, since it is the one responsible for the feelings that come about. Because of this, it is essential to be able to learn how to replace this thinking with positive thoughts that could bring about desirable outcomes or reactions. This is essential to the patient, since he admitted that he suffers from instances of deep depression, which is rooted down to his thoughts about his father dying and his fear of a lonely future (Beck, 2005). If he were to think of a different thought, just like what CBT encourage, then it he could recover from his case of depression.

 

The patient’s problems are deeply rooted in his mind, making the CBT a very appropriate topic. The solution would lie in the hands of the patient, wherein he discovers how to manage properly his thoughts (2006). The patient also disclosed that he was suffering from a case of schizophrenia, since his brains are transmitting or secreting different chemical signals, causing to respond indifferently (McGorry, 2004). According to Schizophrenia Fellowship of NSW Inc., “Certain biochemical imbalances in the brain are believed to be involved in the cause of schizophrenia. Neurotransmitters (the substances that allow communication between nerve cells) have long been thought to be involved in the development of schizophrenia (2005b).” This description was similar as what the patient believes is happening to him. If that’s the case, then the disease model is appropriate for the patient, since he has undergone treatment before and that he has been subjected to medication, only that he ceased taking medicines already (2005a). His visual and auditory hallucinations are being suppressed by the medication he was taking, but when he ceased taking it, these hallucinations came back to him.

 

Regarding the patient’s depression, CBT explains that it is a result of negative thinking, especially when he thinks about matters about his father. Because of these, they often drift from reality, sulking alone, staring blankly, and more (Trudeau, 2004). This leads to the patient experiencing these negative thoughts running out of their control, wherein they become automatic and propagates and perpetuates by themselves. The recognizable patterns of these negative are commonly called as cognitive distortions (2003). These distortions could be eliminated by correcting the thinking of the patient. In CBT, this is known as cognitive restructuring.

 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is really applicable in the case of the client since his depression deals in his problems of himself and his future. This is because of negative thoughts that lead to depression is generally related to the following: one is the negative view of self, wherein he considers himself as an enemy or a part of the problem, the next one is his negative outlook about the world, wherein he simply hates it, thus fueling his depression more, and the last is the negative view of the future, wherein the patient fears it, of what might happen to him or someone near him. This concept is manifested in his outlook of the future, another source of his depression (Fenton, 2006). He views it as negative, wherein he fears the death of his father or him being left alone in the future. CBT tends to correct this by rearranging your thoughts, on how you view the reality, on the infinite possibilities there is to see.

 

A way to correct this was to change his outlook of the future, wherein a big factor – his father, is involved. If you explain to him that the future lies in his hands, whether he will be lonely or not, wherein his father may still live if he could take care of him. If ever he changes his outlooks in life, then the depression he usually feels could be averted, wherein he will be able to overcome it.

Pros and Cons of Cognitive Behavioral Theory

The positive side of Cognitive Behavioral Theory is that it’s considered the fastest in obtaining results, wherein a client receives and average of 16 sessions. Other modes or forms of therapy could take up to years in order to get certain results. CBT is fast because it is highly instructional in nature, wherein learning is easy, and that it encourages doing assignments. CBT is not a one-sided therapy wherein only the psychiatrists work on to cure the patient. It calls for a collaboration of the Therapist and the Patient, wherein they work hand and hand to achieve a certain goal. Most of the inputs even came from the patient himself, since the therapist elicits information from the patient through sharing of experiences. The therapist is there only to listen, teach and support and give confidence to the patient, while the clients is deemed to express his concerns about various matters, learn and the implantation to learning. CBT is also structured and well tailored. It is directive wherein they have a certain specific idea or agenda fro each season they have.

 

The therapists serve as guides in the progress of their patients, so that they see to it that for the time being they were able to follow you. The therapists though are not there to tell their patients what to do; instead they open their patient’s eyes on how to do it, how to come out with those kinds of things. And the most prominent feature of the Cognitive Behavioral Theory is that it boasts of Homework. They give reading assignments to patients or clients. This boosts the speed of the CBT in creating outputs. The person in charge requires this group of people to comply and do their home works. This is the real test if the have ever leaned anything from them.

 

It is undeniable that there are certain drawbacks in this Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model. The most noticeable aspect is the cost of having CBT, wherein the homework requires the patient more time to spend in doing so, yet it doesn’t promise or assure any success. The effect doesn’t come out immediately, wherein they require 6 weeks to 6 months of time, without any assured success.

 

To conclude, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model is really applicable to the case of the patient, wherein there are various factors at play. They are considered to affect the patient as a whole, and should also be treated as such. Since the root of this problem is the mind, then the way to solve this is through the mind also. The way of thinking affects the patient’s actions and these actions are essential in his behavior as a whole. To solve this, the way of thinking should be changed for the good of the patients. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model promises a great deal in the future of psychology, psychiatry and the cure of a lot of metal illnesses.
References:

(2003) What Causes Schizophrenia?

 

(2005a) Causes of Schizophrenia.

 

(2005b) Possible causes of schizophrenia.

 

(2006) Schizophrenia.

 

BECK, J. S. (2005) Questions and Answers about Cognitive Therapy

 

BENBOW, K. L. (2006) Cognitive Therapy for Schizophrenia. IN TODAY, C. T. (Ed.), Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research.

 

BOGGIO, R. M. (2001) Psychotherapy for Personality Disorders – Cognitive Behavior Therapy of DSM-IV Personality Disorders: Highly Effective Interventions for the Most Common Personality Disorders, Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press.

 

DAVIS, A. (2004) Theories Used in IS Research: Social Cognitive Theory. IN WADE, M. & SCHNEBERGER, S. (Eds.), York University.

 

EDELSTEIN, M. R. (2004) What You Need to Know to Overcome Depression, Anxiety, Anger, Stress. Tampa, FL, The StressGroup.

 

FENTON, C. H. (2006) An Introduction to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

 

GARDNER, G. R. (1997) A Biological Theory to Underpin Cognitive Behavior Management. Cognitive Behavior Management Reference.

 

HAYES, S. (2005) Stability and Change in Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Considering the Implications of ACT and RFT. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Volume 23, pp. 131-151(21).

 

MCGORRY, P. (2004) The Causes of Schizophrenia.

 

PERSONS, J. B., DAVIDSON, J. & TOMPKINS, M. A. (2007) Psychotherapy Videotape Series – Cognitive–Behavior Therapy for Depression. Washington, DC.

 

PUCCI, A. (2006) Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

 

TRUDEAU, M. (2004) Treating Depression in Adolescents: Cognitive Therapy Shows Positive Effects in Teens.

 

WALKER, F. (2005) Possible causes of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Fellowship.

WALTER, H.-J. (1997) Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Gestalt-Theoretical Psychotherapy. Gestalt! a chronicle of the developing application of Gestalt principles, Vol.1.

 

WEEMS, C. F. & CARRION, V. G. (2003) The Treatment of Separation Anxiety Disorder Employing Attachment Theory and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Techniques. Clinical Case Studies, Vol.2, 188-198.

 

 

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