Mental Illnesses: Types, Features and Symptoms

Unfortunately there are people who are born less fortunate than other’s. Some are slower than others, and there are some who pick up. Sadly some are made fun of because of the condition. This is when mental retardation comes into place. In my report I will be talking about mental retardation and the different kids of mental illnesses.

Mental retardation is often thought of a disease ( Mental retardation 1 ). Disease would be the wrong term. Mental retardation is a term for wide range or conditions ( Mental retardation 1 ). The meaning of mental retardation depends on what society demands of the individual in learning skills, and social responsibility ( Mental retardation 1 ).

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Mental retardation is most often appeared in children under the age of 18 ( Mental retardation ). A person is considered mentally retarded if they have an intellectual functioning level below average and significant limitations in two or more adaptive skill areas ( Mental retardation 1 ). The IQ score for mental retardation is below 70-75. Mental retardation occurs in 2.5-3% of the general population, and about 6-7.5 million mentally retarded individuals live in the United States alone ( Mental retardation 1 ).

Mentally retarded children learn to walk and talk much later than the general population ( Mental retardation 1 ). The symptoms may appear at birth or later in childhood ( Mental retardation 1 ). About 85% of the mentally retarded population is in the mildly retarded category, their IQ score ranges to 50-75, they often can reach up to a 6th grade level ( Mental retardation 2 ). They can live independently with community and social support ( Mental retardation 2 ).

About 10% of the mentally retarded population is considered moderately retarded, with the IQ scores that range from 35-55, they also carry communication skills as a child, they function okay, but need to be with the community in a supervised environment such as a group home ( Mental retardation 2 ). Also about 3-4% of the mentally retarded population is severely retardation with IQ scores of 20-25. They may be able to develop self-care and communication skills with the support and training, and they need a high level of supervision ( Mental retardation 2 ).

People who are mentally retarded often live with family or members of the family. People with the most severe disabilities are often given support and government financial help ( Mental retardation ). People with mental retardation who have no relatives, the state provides and subsidizes care through traditional institutions, state schools, special homes, and nursing homes, programs and intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded ( Mental retardation 2 ). Sometimes for elderly parents it becomes to difficult to care for their child, therefore that’s when the role of siblings and other’s come into place.

A new study finds that rearrangements at the end of chromosomes represent one of the most common cause of moderate to severe mental retardation ( DNA furnishes tips to mental retardation 1 ). Identified DNA rearrangements often run in families, including the need for genetic screening for children who have mental handicaps unknown of ( DNA furnishes tips to mental retardation 1 ). A study says that changes on chromosome is often occur in children with unexplained mental retardation ( DNA furnishes tips to mental retardation 1 ). Also Also researchers examined chromosome ends in 284 children with moderate to severe unexplained mental retardation ( DNA furnishes tips to mental retardation 1 ).

All living things pass on traits from one generation to the next according to a systematic set of “Blueprints.” Egg and sperm cells, are formed to carry only one set of 23 different chromosomes that are found in the human body ( Genetics 1 ). Characteristics can only be inherited through genes, and chromosomes. Characteristics are a result of both heredity and environment ( Genetics 1 ). The study of heredity started in the 1800’s ( Genetics 1 ).

Many conditions that can cause severe retardation can be diagnosed during pregnancy, and some cases treatment can lesson or sometimes prevent retardation ( Mental Retardation 2 ). The known causes fall into two main categories, genetic and acquired conditions ( Mental Retardation 2 ). Some types of mental retardation can be prevented, sadly others cant. About 35% of cases the cases the cause mental retardation cannot be found. Factors include inherited genes, such as fragile x syndrome, phenyliketonuria, accidents, or mutations in genetic development such as development of an extra chromosome 18 ( tiresomely 18 ), ( Mental Retardation 1 ). Most factors include cigarette smoking and drug abuse during pregnancy, and fetal alcohol syndrome, in this case it affects one in six hundred children in the United States and is caused by excessive alcohol drinking ( Mental Retardation 2 ). Women who are over 35 are at a high risk of having a mentally retarded child, this also goes for men, the older they get or wait to have a baby the higher the risk is ( Decreasing the chance of birth defects 2 ). Women who eat healthy have a less chance of her baby to be mentally retarded. Living a healthy life style can also prevent birth One nutrient known to prevent birth defects is folic acid ( Decreasing the chance of birth defects 2 ). Folic acid is the chemical form of foliate, which is found in green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, and legumes ( Decreasing the chance of birth defects 2 ). A pregnant woman who has a serious medical condition is at greater risk of having her baby have birth defects ( Decreasing the chance of birth defects 3 ). According to March of Dimes , alcohol is the most common known cause of fetal damage in the country and the leading cause of presentable mental retardation ( Decreasing the chance of birth defects 3 ).

Environmental toxins such as lead are best to avoid ( Decreasing the chance of birth defects 5 ). Scraping paint, drinking water from a pipe covered with lead, or drinking out of decorative pottery containing lead can all cause lead poisoning and mental retardation in a fetus ( Decreasing the chance of birth defects 5 ). Radiation is also dangerous. Taking a hot bath, using saunas, over exercising in hot humid weather can rise a woman’s core temperature and have the potential to cause birth defects in the first trimester ( Decreasing the chance of birth defects 5 ).

Dealing with people who are mentally retarded, in the court of law is not easy. Mental retardation must not be viewed as an excuse or defense for criminal behavior ( Dealing with offenders who are mentally retarded 1 ). Some individuals with mental retardation, may warrant serious sanctions by the criminal justice process for their criminal behavior ( Dealing with offenders who are mentally retarded 1 ). The officer’s may still put the offender in jail, however not in a cell with other’s who can abuse them ( Dealing with offenders who are mentally retarded 3 ).

When interviewing, officers should make sure that the offender understands their Miranda Rights ( Dealing with offenders who are mentally retarded 3 ). Officers also need to make sure that the suspect understands the questions asked ( Dealing with offenders who are mentally retarded 3 ). Interviews should be well documented. By documenting interviews, officers are able to establish the fats regarding suspects criminal actions and their understanding of their rights ( Dealing with offenders who are mentally retarded 3 ). Also just because a person is mentally retarded doesn’t mean they can’t stand trial.

Perske is the name of one man who’s mission is to defend people with mental disabilities, he fills they are being railroaded by the criminal justice system ( Preserving the rights of the mentally retarded in the criminal justciesystem 1 ). Leigh Ann Reynolds a project associate at the National Arc calls him ” the only person that I’m aware of, who’s been tracking this problem on a national level “). Perske has collected data on more then 100 cases of people with mental retardation who who have been convicted of capital crimes ( Reserving The Rights of The Mentally Retarded In The Criminal Justice System 1 ). In some of his cases the defendants have been concocted of crimes they did not commit ( Reserving The Rights of The Mentally Retarded In The Criminal Justice System 1 ).

Perske bottom line is did that person receive equal justice? Whether guilty or innocent, did the system treat that person as other citizens are treated when charged with the same crime? Often the answer appears to be no ( Preserving The Rights of The Mental Retarded In The Criminal Justice System 1 ).

For example, a case of Richard Lapointe was convicted of the 1987 rape and murder of his wife’s eighty eight year old grandmother ( Preserving The Rights of The Mentally Retarded In The Criminal Justice System 1 ). Lapointe waived his Miranda rights, but Perke doubts that he Even understood what it meant ( Preserving The Rights of The Mentally Retarded In The Criminal Justice System 1 ). Lapoinete had Dandy walker syndrome, this is a congenital brain malformation that affects the ability to think, as well as eyesight, hearing in both ears, and balance ( Preserving The Rights of The Mentally Retarded In The Criminal Justice System 2 ). Lapointe concerned about what happened to his wife’s grandmother, and was friendly with the officers who came into his work ( Preserving The Rights of The Mentally Retarded In The Criminal Justice System 2 ).

A question is always’s asked. Why would someone confess to a crime that someone else committed ( Preserving The Rights of The Mentally Retarded In The Criminal Justice System 3 )?People with mental retardation are thought to trust and obey authority figures, parents, teachers, and the police, often times mentally retarded people who are convicted of a crime say they did the crime even thought they didn’t, they say this because they don’t understand what’s going on and they want to make people happy, so in their mind that’s the best thing to say.

As you can see just because a person is mentally retarded and commits a crime doesn’t mean that they are going to get off easy. Unfortunately many women have children who have mental retardation or some sort of a disability. There isn’t much we can do but watch and offer a hand in need. When a child is mentally retarded they are sometimes made fun of, what to do? That’s when tons of hugs and kisses and a little love and tender care comes into place.

Mental retardation is not the only disorder. There are millions out there today. Mental illnesses is also one of the many. Mental illnesses are complex disorders that involve the way people think, feel and act. Mental illnesses have a devastating impact on the people who have it and their family.

Each year one in 10 Americans experience some disability from a mental illness ( Mental Health 1 ). Five million American adults suffer from the most severe mental illnesses, schizophrenia, affective mood disorders, manic-depressive illness, and major depression, anxiety disorders ( Mental Health 1 ). These are just some of the many illnesses. Some mental illnesses are diseases that are caused by a biological imbalance and disturbance, others are entirely mental inorgin ( Mental Health 1 ).

Mental illnesses cost more then $150 billion per year in the United States, this includes the cost of Social Service and disability payments to patients, and lost productivity and premature death ( Mental Health 2 ). Anyone can suffer from a mental illness at any age. Manic depressive illness and major depression are the two most server affective mood disorders ( Mental Health 2 ). Each year almost 18 million Americans 18 years old and older suffer from these affective disorders, according to the National Insatiate of Mental Health ( 2 ).

Depression is treatable, but many people are unable to function for weeks or months because they do not get treatment ( Mental Health 2 ). By taking medication depression improves within weeks. By taking treatment prevents people from becoming depressed again. Women are twice as likely to suffer from depression as men are ( Mental Health 2 ). People who are seriously depressed are more likely than others to have a heart attack or commit suicide ( Mental Health 2 ).

Major depression is the leading cause of mental illnesses in the United States and throughout the world ( Mental Health 2 ). Depression is a genuine p psychiatric illness that affects both mind and body ( Mental Health 3 ). They also have persistently depressed thoughts and moods along with trouble sleeping and eating, and decreased energy ( Mental Health 3 ).

Mental illness is sometimes difficult to diagnose ( Mental Health 5 ). Severe mental illness need to be evaluated within the context of the patient’s personal relationships, work and family life ( Mental Health 5 ). Diagnosis also rely heavily on patient’s description on how they fell and the experience they had ( Mental Health 5 ). There is no standard test or methods of mental illnesses diagnosis that are accurate ( Mental Health 5 ). Research sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health has shown that mental illness can be defined and treated and sometimes prevented ( Mental Health 5 ). Most people with a mental illness have to see a physician or psychiatrist. A tranquilizer is a medication for mental illness ( Mental Health 6 ). Tranquilizers have a calming effect ( Mental Health 6 ).

Mental illness can lead to confusion and chaos around the family ( The Bind That Tie And Heal: How Families Cope With Mental Illness 3 ). Love ones suffer many times. There is always tension because the illness can strike at any time. Family members loss their personal, social, spiritual and economic lives ( The Binds That Tie And Heal: How Families Cope With Mental Illness 3 ). Exhaustion is the natural result of living in such an atmosphere ( The Binds That Tie And Heal: How Families Cope With Mental Illness 4 ). The symptoms that the family goes trough because of a loved one has a mental illness, can be devastating.

As you can see there are different mental illnesses, and they can all come at any time. There are many different medications to take for them. Not only does this illness effect the person who has it, but also of the loved ones. This is why there are many support groups out there to help anyone or any family that needs it. Work CitedBower B. “Health and Social Work ” to Mental DNA Furnishes tips RetardationNovember 20,1999. April 4, 2001”Gentics.” Worlf of Health. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Student Ressource Center–Health Module. Farmington Hills, Mich.. Gale Group 2000. Http://, Herber. “Psychology Today” The Binds That Tie And Heal: How Families Cope WithMental Illness March 2001. March 2001. April 4 2001Http://, Sharon. “Health and Social Work ” Emerging issues In Mental Retardation.

August 2000. April 4, 2001, L ” Deling with Offenders Who Are Mentally Retarded .” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 1994 July : Sirs Researcher. Madera High School Lib., Madera, Ca. 4 Apr.2001

“Mental health.” Gale Group 2000. Reproduced in Student Center–Health Module. Farmigton Hills, Mich..Gale Group 2000”Mental Retardation.” World of Health. Gale Group, 2000. Reproduced in Student Resource Center–Health Module. Farmington Hills, Mich..Gale Group 2000.

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