Methamphetamine Use in Twin Cities Metropolitan State University
A white crystalline powder, soluble in water or alcohol, that has a bitter taste, can turn one’s life around in just few hours - Methamphetamine Use in Twin Cities Metropolitan State University introduction. Methamphetamine (Meth) is a central nervous system stimulant and has a high potential for abuse and dependency. Meth releases very high levels of dopamine in the brain. It stimulates brain cells and initially enhances mood. The user then experiences several symptoms; increased physical activities, hyperactive, decreased appetite. With higher doses or prolong usage, the user can experience irritability, insomnia, confusion, hallucinations, anxiety, paranoia and increased aggression. In even higher doses, hypothermia and convulsions can cause death. When the body is stimulated by Methamphetamine, the drug can cause irreversible damage. The increased heart rate and blood pressure damage blood vessels in the brain, which can cause strokes, or irregular heart beat, which can cause cardiovascular collapse and death. By vastly increasing the release of dopamine, Methamphetamine appears to damage brain cells, eventually actually reducing the amount of dopamine available to the brain, causing symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease and severe depression, or both.
The open use of drugs & other harmful stimulants have taken a toll nowadays. A variety of drugs easily accessible in the market & being prepared with inexpensive over the counter drugs have shown a rise in the percentage of addicts even in the most advanced countries. The drug problem is widely advancing in the western countries. Meth or methamphetamine; often referred to as speed or chalk was developed in the early nineteenth century is an extremely addictive stimulant; white, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that can be easily dissolved in water or even alcohol. The drug originated from amphetamine, another drug that was formerly used in nasal decongestants & inhalers.
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AUGMENTING IN EXPLOITATION:
The studies clearly show that the use of meth primarily in men has risen since the early 1990’s to the early 20th century. This unfavorable act has increased the threats to the drug addicts, especially the stature has moved from 15% to almost 60 % in smoking methamphetamine; which is the most harmful form of ingestion since it quickly affects the brain. However, there has been a decline in the inhaling rationale up to 20 %. The exploitation is steady throughout the years using oral, injections & other admissions as well. The addicts tend to use a much higher amount of meth which causes instant feelings of well being & restlessness. Being an intoxicating stimulant drug, it affects the brain cells more readily then the amphetamine.
LONG TERM & SHORT TERM EFFECTS:
Using meth has a variety of long term & short term effects on an individual, it produces mood swings, after feeling a few seconds of intense rush or a pleasurable feeling. The effect basically depends on the way it is being taken in. when taken through snorting or inhaling it creates jubilation, although the effect is much stronger when injected or smoked. In comparison to other drugs, meth affects the brain more strongly & produces a much higher pleasure intensity which provokes the user to take in more of the drug as the effects wear off. Short term effects include increased activity & breathing pattern & a higher heart rate. Whereas; long term effects include brain damage resulting in memory loss, psychological problems, severe weight loss & mood disturbances.
Even in small doses methamphetamine may affect the user by decrease in appetite, hyperthermia etc. Overdose of the drug can cause cardiac related problems & result in death if it is not treated quickly. The hazardous effects of dopamine released by using this drug are considered to be most disastrous on the nerve terminals in the brain.
The drug addict can be treated successfully if given medical aid at the right time. The effects of the harmful drug are luckily reversible & hence can be taken care of. Behavioral therapies such as cognitive behavioral and contingency management interventions are considered to be the most effective treatments for methamphetamine addictions. There are a number of FDA approved drugs originally being used to cure other ailments, available, that can help in the treatment of the addict. New compounds are being developed and studied in preclinical institutes for the better cure of this addiction, many previously made medicines are also in the testing phase. In a few years time, a much better & effective option would be available to treat users of methamphetamine & other harmful drugs.
Amphetamines and methamphetamine are the two primary substance of abuse in the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). These are the stimulants of central nervous system and equal consequences as drugs of abuse. Few states and jurisdictions do not differentiate between the two, while the 49 number of states mark methamphetamine as the primary drug of abuse. Methamphetamine treatment has been increased in a period of decade from 1993 to 2003.
The graphs show gradual increase of methamphetamine treatment over the span of 11 years. The route through which they are administered also varies in different patient. They are administered through oral, inhalation, smoking, injection and other routes.
The treatment admissions for methamphetamine abuse were very few in 1993. For 28K (2%) people admitted for the treatment were for methamphetamine and amphetamine abuse, while 39K had these substances as secondary/tertiary substance of abuse in treatment admissions. In 2003 the number increased to 136K for primary methamphetamine abuse treatment admissions and 75K for secondary abuse.
The increase in meth treatment admissions is observed in some states while no increase in others. The rate at which it increased was from 13 to 56 per 100 K population older than 12 years of age. Some states have low rate of treatment as compared to others. The rate in Northeast remained low in 1993 to 2003. In 2003 only 2 states’ national rates exceeded while in 1993 only one state in the Midwest exceeded the national rate. The rates were different in the West states. Many states in west increased their national rates of treatment from 1993 to 2003 and most of them exceeded the national rates. Some were even four times or three times more than the national rate.
Graph 1 shows the number of individuals admitted for treatment because of methamphetamine abuse from 1997 to 2006. It shows gradual increase each year but a decline in number of individuals admitted for treatment in 2006 in the Twin Cities. The relation between the two variables is in positive direction.
Graph 2 The second graph shows the total number of patients admitted for treatment for drug abuse including alcohol and street drugs. It reaches high level in 2002 but then a decline in 2003 after which it is followed by gradual rise till 2005. In 2005 it reaches peak.
Graph 3 shows number of different drug users admitted for treatment in twin cities. The relationship with methamphetamine use is found to be linear. From 1997 to 2006 there is a slight increase and then slight increase in the number of users of methamphetamine that were admitted for treatment.
Graph 4 the Methamphetamine labs in Minnesota show a linear relationship between events related to methamphetamine and year.
Graph 5 There is an increase number of users in Twin cities for the methamphetamine use.
The demographics show that mostly male are patients for the treatment admissions making 53% to 55% of the 11 year span. Age also varied between 28-30 years over the period of 1993 to 2003. The percentage of Whites declined from 83 to 73 and those of Hispanics rose to 16% from 9% in 1993.
Graph 6 Rates of methamphetamine users per 100,000 of population is highest in Iowa.
Route of administration vary among the patients.
The methamphetamine and amphetamine admissions in 1993 show that the primary route of administration is inhalation that accounted for the 42% and secondary was 29% for injection and 15% for smoking while only 13% for oral administration. Only 1% accounted for other methods of administration. In 2003 the highest route of administration was smoking that accounted to 56% while that for injection was only 22% and inhalation only 15% and oral route accounted to 6 percent.
Graph 7 Route of methamphetamine is mostly smoke that is increasing from 1997 to 2006. That is smoking is becoming the most popular way of consuming methamphetamine.
Graph 8 Different routes of consumption are shown. Smoking is the most linear and its use as a methamphetamine consumption is seen to rise gradually from 1997 to 2006. While, injection and inhalation is shown as a main route of consumption has declined over the span of 10 years.
Graph 9 Injection and oral consumption of methamphetamine shows a decline while smoking use has a linear relationship as a main route of consumption.
Graph 10 compares to routes of consumption smoking and oral and the resulting plasma level. With oral consumption it reaches highest plasma level while with smoke it reaches below the level that is attained via oral route.
TEDS data show that in 2003 65% were admitted to ambulatory care of which 52% were in non-intensive outpatient and 13% were in intensive outpatient and 0.1% for detoxification. The ¼ of admissions were for residential treatment settings where 10% were in detoxification.
This research is studying Methamphetamine Use in Twin Cities, MN compare to other States and the whole USA. It also looks at different variables that show who the users are and what are their routes. The graphs that are used are Scatterplots and Bar Graphs. Almost all the graphs, have years as the Explanatory variable and quantitative Response variables. Scatterplot graphs include linear regression to determine the rate of growth (slope). None of the graphs have Normal Models.
Through this observational study, we are seeking to understand the relationship between these chosen variables that could help us to predict the future outcomes. But more importantly we are hoping to recognize the pattern and possibly manage its direction to prevent more damage to people and the environment.
According to Hazelden, in 2006 the average age of first time users who were admitted to treatment programs in Twin Cities was 21.1 years old. Men were accounted for 64.6 percent, that is the lowest percentage with in any drug category (Alcohol, Marijuana, Cocaine and Heroin). Where, there were only 35.4 percent of women of meth users, but is the highest percentage within any drug category. Most of the patients 88.5 percent were White. However, Asians accounted for 2.8 percent, and it is the highest percentage of Asians within any drug category.
When comparing United States and the Twin Cities information in the route the individuals used to get the Methamphetamine into their systems were fairly similar graft 11 and 12. Smoking the Methamphetamine had the most increase in the Twin Cities going from 13.2 percent to 66.8 percent in 2006 compared to US of 15percent in 1993 to 56 percent 2003. The slope for the Twin Cities (1997-2003) 6.84 with r value of .96 and the United States (1993-2003) 4.1 with r value of 1 because the there are only two points given. A decrease in sniffing is seen in both cases with a greater decrease seen in Twin Cities slope of -5.546 compared to the slope of United States of -2.7. Injection and oral decrease some with both United States and Twin Cites comparable.
Methamphetamine use is easily and fast spread through out the whole Minnesota. Meth can be simply made from items that anyone can get; chemical products, medicine. All those items are mixed and cooked to make this drug. The “Meth Labs”, where the cooking process occurs leaves a dark spot, not only in life of those who live there, but also to the environment. It leaves about 5 to 7 pounds of chemical waste for every pound of meth that is made. The waste doesn’t always take a solid form; it can take a liquid or gas form, and could be easily breathed, eaten, or absorbed through the skin.
In 2003 Minnesota got hit with 500 meth lab-related events, but that number decreased to 320 events in 2004. In 2005, there were only 128-reported meth production events in Minnesota. Eighty-five percent of these events were reported before the new legislation took effect in 2005. On July 1st, 2005 Minnesota State Law passed a law that restricted retailers across the nation to sell substances containing ephedrine and pseudoephedrine to anyone who is under 18 years of age. It is now can be only reached behind the counter and a buyer must provide identification and sign the sales list. The declining slope continued in 2006, and there were only 73 meth-related events reported to the Department of Health.
On the other hand, Methamphetamine admission to treatment facilities in the Twin Cities has been on the steady rise since 1997 to 2006. While Methamphetamine admission to treatment facilities in the United States has been on the rise since 1992 to 2004. Although the information that has been found about the United States admission was from 1992 and 2004, Minnesota’s information was from1997-2006. Using linear line formulation for the United States .583(x) + (-52.66) the percent for 1997 would be 3.89percent and Twin Cities average was 3.1 percent. By 2003 the Twin Cities (7.5 percent) was at the approximately the same percent as the United States (7.4 percent). Minnesota (10 percent) continues to rise above the United States (8 percent) in 2004. The United State’s information was from National Institute on Drug Abuse and Twin Cities was obtained information from Hazelden.
Information that was obtained from Drug and Alcohol Services Information Systems in 1993, the average United States Methamphetamine/Amphetamine admission rates per 100,000 populations aged 12 or older was 13 and Minnesota was 8 shown on graft 11. While, all of the surrounding states were below the United States average in 1993 for admission to treatment programs as well. Information showed that in 2003, Minnesota (100) passes the United States average (56) number of admissions by 44, which puts Minnesota at 1.79 times the national average. When comparing the admission rate of Twin Cities and Minnesota to the United State average, the Twin Cities was at United States average for 2003. This reflection of Minnesota admissions would suggest that the Methamphetamine use was in the increased rural areas. All of the surrounding states, except for Wisconsin and North Dakota, were above the national average in 2003. With Iowa extremely higher 3.8 times the United States average. Possible explanation for being above the average could be Methamphetamine can be made from fertilizer, and the states have strong agricultural background. This would explain the increase of Methamphetamine use in the rural areas of Minnesota.
With the current data it is of the view that treatment admissions for Methamphetamine/Amphetamine will increase gradually over the next 10 years. The use of Methamphetamine/Amphetamine has become very dangerous. As it is clearly seen in graphs that its consumption is gradually rising it is estimated that those admitted for treatment of Methamphetamine consumption will rise gradually in the twin cities. Its use in smoking is also increasing each year. By the 2010 and 2015 probably 50% of those admitted for treatment will be for Methamphetamine use.
It is important that proper steps should be taken to treat the addicts & provide them psychological help as well. The hard feelings of emotional trauma & other such psychological disorders motivate people to take up drugs in order to feel better. Amenities should be set up so as to avoid such happenings. Emergency departments & treatment programs should be devised to counter such addicts & provide them with care & facilitation to improve their condition.
Hazelden. (2007). Monitoring drug abuse trends – Nationally and in Minnesota. Butler Center for Research – Drug Abuse Trends. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.hazelden.org/web/public/drugabusetrends.page#
Minnesota Department of Corrections. (2006). Fiscal Year 2006 Report. Minnesota Prison Population Projections. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.corr.state.mn.us/documents/ProjectionsReport-FY06.pdf
Minnesota Department of Health. (2007). Methamphetamine and Meth Labs. Environmental Health – Touching Everyone’s Llife Every Day. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/meth/
Minnesota Department of Human Services. (2006). Minnesota Methamphetamine Resource Center. Disabilities. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/idcplg?IdcService=GET_DYNAMIC_CONVERSION&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&dDocName=id_058351
Minnesota Public Radio. (2004). The Costly addiction. Meth in Minnesota. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/projects/2004/06/meth/
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) November 29, 2006.National Institutes of Health (NIH) a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 16 November 2007 <http://www.nida.nih.gov/ResearchReports/Methamph/methamph2.html#what>
Trends in Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Admissions to Treatment: 1993-2003 http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/methTX/methTX.pdf
Glossary of Terms
Causal effect: shows that you have a causal relationship you have to show that you have some type of relationship.
Correlation: mutual relation of two or more things, parts, etc. Correlation requires that both variables be quantitative.
Death: the act of dying; the end of life; the total and permanent cessation of all the vital functions of an organism.
Emergency room: the section of a health care facility for providing rapid treatment to victims of sudden illness or trauma.
Ephedrine: a white, crystalline alkaloid, C10H15N, obtained from a species of Ephedra or synthesized: used in medicine chiefly for the treatment of asthma, hay fever, and colds.
Histogram: a bar graph of a frequency distribution in which the widths of the bars are proportional to the classes into which the variable has been divided and the heights of the bars are proportional to the class frequencies.
Increase: growth or augmentation in numbers, size, strength or quality.
Methamphetamine: a central nervous system stimulant, C10H15N, used clinically in the treatment of narcolepsy, hyperkinesia, and for blood pressure maintenance in hypotensive states: also widely used as an illicit drug.
Negative: measured or proceeding in the direction opposite to that which is considered as positive.
Positive: directed or moving toward a source of stimulation.
Pseudoephedrine: a dextrorotatory, isomeric compound, C10H15NO, used as a nasal decongestant.
Relationship: a connection, association, or involvement.
Scatterplot: a two-dimensional graph of two or more variables with them plotted on the Y-axis or the X-axis to show their relationship(s).
Skewed: not symmetrical about the mean. Used of distributions.
Statistics: the science that deals with the collection, classification, analysis, and interpretation of numerical facts or data, and that, by use of mathematical theories of probability, imposes order and regularity on aggregates of more or less disparate elements.
Strong: powerful, effectiveness, potency, or cogency; compelling.
Variable: a quantity or function that may assume any given value or set of values.
Weak: lacking potency, strength or intensity.