Motivation and or morale or im open for suggestions - Motivation Essay Example
Motivation and or morale or im open for suggestions
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An organization is set up with the purpose of achieving certain objectives. Objectives can be achieved only when the organization is put to the best use. This calls for efficient management. The function of management is to co-ordinate the various factors in such a manner that they can contribute their maximum towards the realization of common aims.
Human beings seek satisfaction in every action and in every walk of life. There is a possibility that motivation for higher effort comes more from a man satisfied in his job than one who is not. Briefly, it can be said that unless a person derives satisfaction from a job, it will not be well done or in extreme cases may not be done at all. Thus it becomes necessary to make human beings satisfactory, if we want to get better extraction of work from them.
A sound climate in the long rum is one of the valuable assets to the organization. The management must consider creating a sound motivational climate in the long-run. What an organization actually offers is of course important, yet more important is how an organization is perceived and to what extent it is considered as a vehicle for meeting the needs of its employees.
APPLICATION OF MOTIVATION TO WORK ENVIRONMENT
As per Maslow’s Need Theory individuals have a number of needs but their importance varies with time. According to this theory there are both lower and higher order needs and latter become important only when lower order needs are already fulfilled. Physiological needs can be met by a base salary which helps in sustenance. Safety needs are met by pension plan which provides livelihood security. Teamwork creates a sense of belongingness which strengthens interpersonal relationships. Job description fulfils self esteem needs of employees which achieves societal status and organizational position. Finally, it is a challenging job which fulfils self actualization needs of individuals that creates sense of achievement.
Need Satisfied by Leading to
Self Actualization Challenging Job Achievement
Self Esteem Job Titles Status & Position
Belongingness Team Work Friendship
Safety Needs Pension Plan Stability
Physiological Needs Base Salary Sustenance
Application of Maslow’s Theory of Motivation in Organization.
MCGLELLAND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
McGlelland identified three distinct needs that are important for various types of individuals need for power, need for affiliation and need for achievement.
The power need is expressed in a strong desire to change or alter the course of events. People who are strongly motivated by the need for power are often effective speakers, may be argumentative, like communicating and want to exercise influence.
The affiliation need exists in all of us but in widely differing degrees. Individuals with a strong affiliation need want love and group approval. They strive for friendship, prefer co-operative situations rather than competitive ones, and desire relationships involving a high degree of mutual understanding.
The achievement need is the twin desire to (1) succeed and (2) not fail.
MOTIVATION AS A FUNCTION OF ABILITY AND OPPORTUNITY
Performance at work place is governed by an individual’s ability, motivation and opportunity. Performance is improved when constraining factors are removed. Thus individuals will achieve higher standards of performance when opportunities to perform are available and obstacles are non-existent. Another major motivating factor is employee attitude. Employee performance is also a function of ability, motivation and attitude. Combining these variables we can have the following equations:
Performance = f (ability x motivation x opportunity )
Ability = f ( knowledge x skills )
Performance = f ( ability, motivation and attitude )
While ability is an individual’s existing capacity to perform various tasks of a given job and ‘attitude’ is pre-disposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment. ‘Ability’ depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long drawn process. On the other hand, motivation can be improved quickly. It is important to remember. ‘ability’ determined what you can do; ‘motivation’ determines what one will do; and ‘attitude’ will determine how one will do.
Able but unwilling Able and willing
Unable and Unwilling Willing but unable
Passive / Inactive Reactive
Willingness / Motivation
Motivation : Individual Perspective
While analyzing ability and motivation on two different axis there are four combinations. The first category of employee who is able but lacks motivation may often be counterproductive as he may use is ability or competence for wrong goals. An individual who is unable and unwilling’ may be passive or inactive and may not contribute towards organizational goals either. Employees who are ‘willing but unable’ may be motivated but may lack in ability to deliver. These individuals may be reactive and may not take initiative or self responsibility. The individuals may be reactive and may not take initiative or self responsibility. The fourth category of employees who are ‘able and willing’ are the “star performers”. They are proactive and contribute maximum towards the organization.
Each category of employee, need to be treated differently as they have varying levels of motivation and ability to perform that goes with the same “different strokes for different folks”. Available options from employers perspectives are given below
Able but unwilling Able and willing
To be counseled To be groomed for
Motivated higher responsibilities
Unable and unwilling Willing but unable
Obsolete : not to be
Retained To be trained
Motivation : Employer Perspective
Able but Unwilling
The first category of employees who are ‘able but unwilling’ need to be counseled and motivated. As they are able they need to be involved in goal setting, given sufficient autonomy in task performance. Supervisors should be aware of reasons for non-performance of such employees despite their being able which could be due to any of such factors: compensation provided by the organization; type of job assigned to them type of supervision they desire in their job; support needed by them to perform their jobs; personal/ family problems; and health problems. Following identification of reasons course corrections can be applied. Leadership style based on joint goal setting and collaborative approach is usually appropriate in this case.
Willing but Unable
Employees in this case can be easily groomed to deliver as they are sufficiently motivated but may lack in knowledge, skill and ability. They are generally reactive and need good degree of supervision and monitoring. Their level of competence for the job they have to perform need to be identified and find if there is a mis-match and whether they need to be redeployed to any alternative job. They may be trained in specific areas where they need improvement and then their performance constantly appraised and feedback obtained
Unable and Unwilling
These employees are source of great concern as they neither have competence nor motivation to perform. Some possible remedial measures could be: counseling; job rotation on person-job fit basis; training need identification and subsequent training, etc. Finally, if such measures do not work, employees may be encouraged to leave the organization under VRS.
Able and Willing
As stated earlier these are the “star performers” but organizations should also know how to handle such individuals as they are assets and organizations need to invest in full measure in them. Retention for such employees in the organization is generally is man concern of the management. It is only by successfully attracting, retaining and motivating high performing individuals, organizations can achieve high levels of performance. They should be groomed for senior positions by gradually upgrading them to higher positions with added responsibilities. Such employees needs to be provided maximum autonomy and flexibility at work place by delegating and empowering them.
EFFECT OF INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION ON PERFORMANCE
These positive experiences make an individual excited, involved, committed, and energized towards their job responsibility. These positive feelings reinforce and energize employees’ self-management efforts and make work personally satisfying. Intrinsic motivation primarily creates and upward spiral of positive feelings and experiences. If source of motivation is external then an additional requirement for higher performance is the availability of opportunity or absence of obstacles. However, if the source of motivation is internal to an individual then he makes extra effort to find or create opportunities or remove hindrances
Availability of opportunity/ Creates opportunities/
Absence of obstacles and remove hindrances
Organizational initiative to improve Self-initiated effort to improve
Improve ability ability
An Ability- Opportunity-Performance Model of Motivation.
In nut-shell the strategy is to identify employee needs and satisfying them. Goals have to be realistic to suit individual capability level. Where employees are competent and motivated they need be given challenging tasks. This apart, organizations need to have an effective performance management system in place where rewards and career progression are linked to performance. Organizatinal culture should be such that there is positive reinforcement for higher performance.
Strategies for Dealing with Intrinsically and Extrinsically
Consultative goal setting
Providing well-defined goals
Autonomy for role performance
Well defined role
Flexibility in rules and procedures
Stringent adherence to rules and Regulations
Involvement in decision making Process
Transparency in decision making process
Linking performance to individual Growth and professional advancement
Through challenging job assignment
Linking performance to
rewards, incentives and Career progression
Opportunities for creativity and innovation
Encouragement for adherence
to laid down norms
An organization can influence the behaviour of its employees through organizational incentives, intrinsic as well as extrinsic. Extrinsic or substantive incentive include pay, working conditions and job security. Intrinsic incentives could be of two types: (1) Social or interactive which include group norms, trust and openness, risk-taking behaviour and supervision: and (2) task or job-re-lated which includes job enrichment, job enlargement and flexible working hours.
· Identify specific organizational incentives which will satisfy different needs of different employees and try to provide these incentives. This process would enhance the value of the incentives.
· Rewards should be linked to performance either in terms of individual or group performance. This will greatly motivate the high performers.
Thus it is important for organizations to maintain and sustain a high level of motivation among their employees so that they have a sense of satisfaction and fulfillment leading to better contribution towards organizational effectiveness.
Ideally, organizations would be better with people who are intrinsically motivated but such a workforce would be very limited in size. It is the management responsibility to make proactive measures to keep their workforce motivated by adopting various initiatives like identifying employee needs, providing well-defined goals, roles, transparency in decision-making process, and performance based incentives and career progression. The key for talent retention lies in investing in them so that they remain motivated and continue to contribute to the organization.
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4. Martin J.Gannon.(1977) Management, Boston: Little Brown and company.
5. Vroom, V.H. (1964), Work and Motivation, Wiley, New York.
6. Nazir, N.A. (1998), “Perceived Importance of Job Facets and Overall Job Satisfaction of Bank Employees”, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations 33(4), 479-496.