Sources of Motivation
Motives affect the attitude of a person towards any task. These motives differ according to the person’s priorities and personality. In the case of the three employees, Ella’s motivation is driven by her biological needs. According to drive-reduction theory, behavior is a response to biological needs (“Motivation,” n.d.). For instance, if a person is thirsty, a sense biological need, he or she will respond to this need to quench his thirst. The biological need then is the source of motivation. On the other hand, the external factors can also cause a person to act in order to satisfy societal expectations or his social needs (“Self-Determination Theory,” n.d.). This is the psychosocial theory of motivation, which then serves as the basis of Marcelo’s motivation. Further, the interaction of biological drives and societal expectations take influence on Masoko’s behavior.
As such, these various types of motivation differentiate the priorities and important factors that influence Ella, Marcelo and Masoko. Therefore, Ella’s need for a higher salary to address all her biological needs such as foods, is the source of her motivation. While Marcelo’s wish for his peers’ or relatives’ approval or admiration is the cause of his motives. On the other hand, Masoko’s dedication for work and the satisfaction he may get from the nature of his work will urge him for promotion (“Employee Motivation,“ n.d.).
Emotions and Motivations
Emotions and motivations are closely related because motives affect people’s emotions. We may motivate ourselves to feel the kind of emotion we want such as affection, anger or hate. Our emotions may dictate the extent of our motivation for a certain task. Since job promotion entails salary increase or additional financial benefits, thus if Ella will be promoted, she can easily address her biological need and gain satisfaction. Marcelo, on the other hand, has foreseen that by means of promotion he can gain respect or admiration from other employees. Moreover, Masoko’s work dedication is enhanced by his desire for promotion. For Masoko, promotion is a means towards a much crucial responsibility for the company. The utilization of his talents and skills for the growth of the company will bring satisfaction for him.
Motivation and Effort
Ella, Marcelo, and Masoko have different motives for promotion. This will lead to differences in the effort that they may exert to attain promotion. The general principle of motivation states that internal motivation is longer lasting and more self-directive than external motivation (Weller, 2005). Since, Ella’s and Marcelo’s motivation are based on external motives, most probably they will exert less effort as compared with Masoko. Masoko’s motives are based on internal factors, thus, he will strive more to gain promotion.
Realistic Combination of Motivating Theories
Sam’s case would probably be best explained using the Maslow’s Humanistic Approach to motivation. Maslow’s approach distinguished unique motivations of humans from animals. He presented different psychological and physiological needs that humans must satisfy to achieve their goals (Huitt, 2004). He proposed the hierarchical needs that humans should strive to achieve, wherein the basic or physiological needs are at the bottom while the highest potential or personal growth needs are at the top. In between these levels of needs are the social or needs for belongingness. Physiological needs must be attained for it is impossible to live without the basic necessities such food and water, clothing and shelter. In addition, safety needs simply require a safe place to live for it would be bothersome to think when you are unsafe or living in a continual state of fear such as do many victims and people caught in war zones. At the very top of the heap, Maslow placed "self-actualization", which is each person's need to become the very best person they can possibly become (Huitt, 2004).
The attainment of Maslow hierarchy of needs will be the best fitting to picture the interaction of motivational theory for Sam’s case. Sam should satisfy first his physiological or biological needs before moving to the next level. Failure to do so, this will produce restless feeling on his part that would affect the attainment of higher level needs. It is fundamental truth that it is impossible to address higher level needs when lower level needs are not met. For example, you don't worry about feeling good about yourself when you're hungry; you don't worry too much about belongingness in a community of like-minded people when you are cold and you need shelter to keep from freezing to death. As such, you have to consider which of your needs is most pressing, and make sure you address that need first, if you are to be successful with and benefit from your self-help efforts. Then, if Sam has attended to his basic necessities, he can now aim for a higher recognition or higher position from his company and eventually become the best that he can be.
Internal factors are the cause of Sam’s motivation for he has met the basic necessities to sustain his life. This intrinsic motivation then will help him to persevere and patiently strive for the attainment of his goals. Moreover, in the achievement of his goals, this intrinsic motivation will strengthen his commitment to his work for this gives him satisfaction and self-fulfillment.
Davidmann (n.d.) stated that factors such as productivity, remuneration, and job satisfaction illuminate what employees are striving to achieve. Employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the other hand, are major factors in organizational behavior. Attitude directly affects job satisfaction while commitment directly affects the entire organization (Tella, Ayeni and Popoola, n.d.). Hence, through the realistic combination of motivations in Sam’s personality, we may infer than that he would have the right attitude for the promotion for he is more concerned with job satisfaction. More than this, he would have the strong commitment for the success of his company.
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Huitt, W. (2004). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html
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Tella, A., Ayeni, C.O. and Popoola, S.O. (n.d.). Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organisational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/tella2.htm
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