Motivation revised - Motivation Essay Example
Discuss how the motivational factor in the work environment for the production workers contributed to the abuse of the company’s product on the job - Motivation revised introduction. In your answer refer to the policies of the company among other factors and employ at least two.
Motivational is linked to team performance. Motivational factors which are emphasized by many psychological models of well being during work. The motivational factors include job autonomy, job complexity and innovativeness. There is little known about whether there is a difference in multinational enterprises with regard to the motivational factors and where they are associated with well being in diverse countries.
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Risks to employee well being and health in several psychological theories have been attributed to lack of innovativeness, job autonomy and job complexity. These motivational factors are closely related to western employees need for greater individual control, personal growth and self mastery. Therefore these intrinsic motivation factors of work are associated with psychological characteristics of well being liked and valued by European and Northern American workers.
Sometimes the relevance of autonomy and innovative factors depend on the cultural and socio-economic environment in which the workers live and work.
Most western psychological theories on workers health suggest that independent creative and challenging work contribute to the workers well being. The intrinsic motivational factors as contributors to health have been presented as a universal fact. Greater job autonomy is crucial for health because it enhances the ability to cope with stressful situations. Innovativeness of the work associates with functional capacity thus highlighting the focal role for the innovative atmosphere for good health of workers in their working areas. Job complexity is associated with a lower risk of poor functional capacity in several countries. Stress may usually affect the workers when they are not faced with jobs which do not have challenges and task variety. This is because it offers only respective and dull task.
Using multiple skills functioning independently and lack of repetitive and dull tasks at work may improve the well being of the workers. These intrinsic motivational factors are associated with self assessed health indictors and health consequences. Job autonomy is said to have an important component of national economic competitiveness. Innovativeness leads to increase in productivity.
Improving of the intrinsic motivational factor may reduce financial costs as well as health problems. These factors act as resources of health at work place, as development shift to greater material well being, the need of self actualization and individualization especially among the employees of the multinational companies.
Praise is also a motivator to workers in any company. It usually gives a sense of worth to the workers to the actual work done.
Goals which are realistic and corresponding to the actual work being done also are a motivator to workers. They ensure that timeliness and work quality combine and employee feel ready for the next task ahead.
Motivation does not have to be positive all the time hence there is need to establish disciplinary guidelines in the workplace. If workers do not face the effects of poor performance then productivity may reduce to a devastating rate.
The layout of the office in which the worker is in is also an equal motivator. A well equipped office helps in maximizing productivity. Ensure each worker has a space which he/she can call his/her own. The equipments should also be ergonometric and sound.
There are other external motivational factors which may include monetary rewards, a clean work environment etc. External motivational factors are usually related to the financial and non-financial rewards. It is mostly thought that increasing employee productivity can be motivated by salary and promotions. Workers also feel motivated if they are treated equally by their employers. It is therefore essential for the employer to give each worker a sense of playing a dynamic integral role in the company. Engendering loyalty thus becomes a key element of motivating workers and thereby increasing the productivity of operations.
Sympathetic help with personal problems is also a motivator to the employees. This is because if personal problems area solved than there is no hindrance to the worker which may affect his or her productivity. There are other intrinsic factors which may include challenge, curiosity, control, fantasy, competition, co-operation and recognition. The motivational factors which are intrinsic should be constant.
Usually intrinsic motivational factors outweigh the external one in the sense that they can be removed. For instance, one may be fired, lose benefits or have his/her salary deducted. External motivators depend on others and therefore lack control. Intrinsic motivation is inside the worker and therefore part of your personality hence what drives you.
The need theory was developed by Maslow and it suggests that there are five levels of needs which are physiological, safety, social, ego and self actualization. The theory articulates that the lower level needs have to be met before the next higher level because it will motivate the employee.
A comparison of the hierarchy of needs as stipulated by Maslow gives good insight into workers motivation. The motivator number one is a self actualizing factor which is an interesting job/work. The number two is a physiological factor which is a pleasing wage. The number three is the esteem factor which is appreciation of the work done (praise). The number four is the safety factor which is the job security. Therefore employer should first of all satisfy their workers according to the order in which Maslow stipulated. The need theory is a psychological based and is depicted as a pyramid. The lower levels are physiological and upper levels are psychological. Once a need has been satisfied it is no longer a prioritized.
Once the needs of a human being are met, others develop in order of precedence. The theory also observed that very few people live, move and have their being within the realms of self-actualization. This is because people have to meet the lower needs first before they reach self actualization which may take ages.
Later the need theory came to include needs such as the hunger for knowledge and a need for aesthetical order and beauty prior to self actualization and transcendence need beyond. This is whereby people feel the need to help other people so that they can also find fulfillment.
The theory has negative version of needs which are low self-esteem and inferiority complexes. In most modern countries, citizens are able to access what they need in regard to physiological and safety needs. Therefore workers have to be motivated in order to be able to meet the companies need and have the urge to work harder to meet their own needs.
The process theory is used in scientific research whereby events are a result of certain input state leading an outcome by following a certain set process if the outcome has to be duplicated then also the process that brought the outcome. There are certain constant necessary conditions that have been put for the outcome to be reached.
In human motivation the theory attempts to explain the mechanisms in which human need changes. Examples of theories that fall in this category are equality, goal setting and expectancy theory.
Equity theory was developed by John Stay Adams. It explains the relational satisfaction in terms of perception of unfair/fair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationship. It stipulates that workers tend maintain equality in the inputs they bring to the job and the outcome they get against what are the other people perceived inputs and outcomes.
Individuals see themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded. This leads to them experiencing distress which leads to efforts to maintain equity within the relationship. It focuses mostly on the distribution of resources. Equity is achieved by comparing ratios of contribution and benefits of each individual within the relationship.
Inputs are the individual contribution to the relational exchange. They are either assets or liabilities. Inputs include time loyalty, hard work, commitment, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, determination, enthusiasm and personal sacrifice.
Outcomes are the positive and negative impacts that an individual perceives as an effect of his or her relationship. Outputs are tangible as well as intangible. Outcomes may include love, sex, intimacy, security, esteem, salary, benefits, expenses, recognition, reputation and responsibility.
People usually measure the total of their inputs and outcomes. Workers ascribe personal values to inputs and outcomes differently. Workers are able to adjust to market conditions. Excessive executive pay may be demotivating. An under compensated employee may withdraw good will and reduce productivity.
Expectancy theory stipulates that individual choices are made on the basis of obtaining positive values. The level of effort brings to a certain level of performance hence expectation of reward. What a person achieves as a reward usually affects his/her behavior, attitudes and feelings at where he/she is working. Adequate rewards to what is expected leads to motivation and maintaining of employees.
The theory asserts that the behavior of human beings is guided by the conscious choices they make with the purpose of maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain. Its key elements are three and will be discussed in the below paragraphs.
People usually consider the outcomes associated with various levels of performance and will definitely pursue the levels that generate the greatest outcome.
Expectancy refers to the strength of an individual’s belief that a certain job performance is achievable. A worker will be motivated if he or she believes that a certain job is achievable.
Instrumentality refers to the probability that there will be a fulfilling outcome to an individual from a certain job. Workers will be motivated if they feel that the probability of getting an outcome from the task given is high.
Valence refers to whether the outcome that will be achieved has any value to the worker. Motivation will only be achieved if the above elements of expectancy are fulfilled.
This theory does not give room for non-motivation but it questions the assumption of whether people feel that a certain task will lead to an outcome. It takes account of personal perceptions and personal histories allowing a diverse response not as in the need theory. Desirable things to individuals are likely to be motivators.
The Employees of the Brewmaster Limited abused alcohol which is a product of the company.
The employees or workers of Brewmaster Limited had constant contact with the very product the company was producing. The motivational factor of freedom to access the product led to its abuse even though the management tried hard to restrict the product consumption.
Motivation does not always have to be positive. The management had a policy where they restricted consumption of alcohol at any time in the premises. This led to abuse of alcohol in the company because when desired things are restricted people tend to rebel against the rules put on them hence the consumption of alcohol. The demand desired things when they are restricted increases intensively hence the workers abused the alcohol. The management thought by putting up the policy that it will instill fear to the workers because they would not want their jobs terminated.
Sympathy to personal needs is a key motivator to a worker. The company had put up a policy where by they will treat people suffering from alcohol or drug abuse because they believed it was an illness. This is sympathy to the worker because sickness is a personal problem. People will tend to do things because they do not suffer the cost of the consequences. Therefore the workers abused alcohol because they were not responsible for the treatment of the illness. Also by the fact that the workers were to receive their normal benefits even when they are absent due to the treatment, it made them to abuse the product more.
Still the sympathy to personal problems had a greater impact in the abuse of the product. This is because the company was ready to sponsor the worker even to a rehabilitation centre for better treatment.
The presence of the permission to indulge for 35 minutes by the workers also led to abuse. Even though the consumption was controlled the workers could not stop drinking. They could take the 12 pack provided for in a month and during break and lunch continue to indulge.
The termination of the employee who has an alcoholic problem also became a problem because the union would come in and require the case to go arbitration for the final decision. This motivated the workers to indulge. The relationship between the union and the management therefore was a motivator to the workers because they knew the consequences will not be severe. The union had to protect the employee and the alcoholic drinker was entitled to representation by the union.
The stressed relationship between the union and management had a big role in allowing product abuse. This is because even when the supervisor selected those he felt are alcohol abuser the union would question the qualifications of the supervisor in determining the level of abuse. The union would keep the supervisor from making to hasty decisions. Some union members would bring a grievance against the supervisor or would instigate a slight slow down in production. This all are made by the union in order to protect the worker. The worker felt that even if they abuse alcohol they will not be responsible of consequences as well as the cost of the same hence over indulgence.
The nature of work that workers were doing also led to alcohol abuse. Breweries are highly mechanized so Brewmaster Limited was not an exception. The work at the brewery involved visual inspection and ensuring that the conveyers moved along smoothly. Problems were delegated to mechanics and technicians. The work the workers in the brewery were doing was neither physically demanding nor interesting. And since also there were no rewards for working at an increased rate or contributing to high production, the workers then turned to alcohol.
Rewards and incentives are greater motivators and if they are not given by the company the workers feel demoralized since in Brewmaster Limited they were not offered workers turned to alcohol due to lack of recognition for their work well done.
Also the workers were not appreciated. They did not receive praise from the company management hence they did not feel that the work they have accomplished worth. To forget these, the workers used alcohol to enjoy themselves so that they can feel relieved. The alcohol they consumed was from the company because they felt that their work was not worth due to lack of appreciation hence no need of working hard anymore to bring about good production results. They would hide behind the machines and consume as much as they can. They were not even supervised not unless a problem occurred.
An interesting job is a motivator at workplace. The workers in Brewmaster did not have interesting jobs nor were they challenging. These made them not to have any morale to work. To reduce themselves out of the boredom at work they took alcohol from the company which they were supervising. Therefore lack of an interesting job as a motivator can lead to indulgence hence abuse of product at the company. The rotation system which was employed in order to reduce the boredom did not help anything because they become familiar with what they will do at each hour hence the abuse of alcohol at the company. One scholar was asked how to deal with monotony at work and suggested that a few beers will make you toot to think what you are doing. This is then why the workers at Brewmaster became alcohol abusers since it was readily available hence the company’s product was abused.
When the policy of the company did not work to end alcohol abuse, the management decided to change it where by the alcohol consumption will be regulated. They changed from a self serve cooler to where by a bartender will be the one serving who was a union worker. This made it easier for the workers, because they would ‘sweet-talk’ the bartender and open the bar to give them some beer thus abusing the product of the company.
According to the need theory which stipulates that the lower needs should be met before the higher ones are met apply to the situation of the Brewmaster industry. This is because workers in the company do not have interesting and challenging tasks to do. Also there are no benefits which are rewarding even after achieving high productivity. Therefore these are the lower needs of the workers which need to be met before the higher ones are met which include dealing with product abuse which is caused by the lack of the lower needs. Not unless the lower needs of the workers addressed then trying to meet higher needs cannot be possible.
The workers in the Brewmaster Company had to fulfill their lower needs first before the higher needs would be met needs. Their need to indulge had to be fulfilled first before the other needs have to be met.
The workers in the company lacked an interesting job to do and therefore had to fulfill this lower need first before they can proceed to the upper needs. They were fulfilling the need of an interesting job by indulging so that they may forget that the tasks they are involved in are boring. This led to the abuse of the company products because they would use the readily available alcohol at their disposal to indulge.
The workers also needed enough benefits that would equal the effort they put at their tasks in the company. The benefits seemed to be low even when they had achieved increased productivity in their job. The workers would feel demoralized and to get themselves out of this situation they would indulge so that hey may forget hence the abuse of the company’s product.
The process theory stipulates that human needs change. The needs of the workers at the Brewmaster Company also were changing according to the circumstances which were prevailing in the working environment at that particular time.
The introduction of a policy led to change of needs in the company. The management had that the workers should not indulge at anytime in the premises. Since the alcohol was very available the workers could not resist the urge to indulge even though it would result to their job being terminated. They could hide behind the machines and consume as much alcohol as they could hence fulfill their need at the expense of the company. Also they would extend their breaks and lunch in order to have enough time to indulge.
The management saw that the policy was not working and decided to change it. They gave the workers the permission to indulge for 35 minutes where they would serve themselves. This also led to the workers need changing and they would indulge after work and their productivity at work still was reducing.
The management still saw that the policy did not work and decided to change it. They removed the self-serve cooler and created a bar where the workers would be served by a bar tender 15 minutes after the shift was over. The bar tender was to refuse to serve them at any other time. The needs of the workers changed and they started hiding cases of beer in various refrigerated storage rooms hence easy access to beer and there abuse of the companies product.
They would also sweet talk the bar tender like the case of John to serve them beer at any other time because he was a union worker and therefore their friend. They would also leave home earlier before their shift for a chance to indulge before their shift and leave the premises many hours late after their shift was over.
The process theory also stipulates that the people consider their inputs to a certain task in regard to the outcome they from the task. The benefits that the workers were receiving even when the productivity increased were not pleasing. To get themselves out of the discouragement they turned to alcohol which was available at their disposal hence the abuse of the company’s product. The workers felt that their work was not being appreciated. For instance John could not accommodate more work and would say if the company wants him to work more they increase his benefits showing that the outcome was not rhyming with the inputs he had to put to complete his job.
In conclusion we can say that motivational factors when they are not put in the right order and according to the prevailing circumstances can lead to losses in a company. This is because it may cause abuse of the company’s products, low performance of the workers and low productivity to the company.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health , Newyork; BMJ Publishing Group. Ltd 2005