Human Resource Management
QUESTION 1 Using two motivation theories of your choice, explain a) the similarities and b) the differences between the two theories.
Both the methods use hierarchical structure. Which means each level has to be completed to go to the next level.
Both are based on achieving internal needs.
They specify the things that motivate people.
Herzberg's hygiene idea is similar to Manslow's Physiological, Safety and Belongingness needs.
And also Herzberg's motivators idea corresponds with Manslow's Esteem and Self-Actualisation needs.
Both theories are based by environmental conditions, employee attitudes and as a result, their motivation.
b) Differences Maslow says that each stage of the 5 must be fully completed before advancing to the next stage..however, Herzberg suggested that there were only 2 stages (hygiene and motivators) instead of 5. Maslow said that fulfilling each stage is a motivator, however Herzberg said that fulfilling the hygiene stage only results in an employee being in neutral state and that satisfaction and motivation only comes from the 2nd stage (motivator).
QUESTION 2 Describe the benefits to an organisation of having a motivated workforce.
One of the most difficult tasks that most employers face is in motivating their employees. This is an area where most companies are seriously deficient and in many cases they just give up and accept that not all of their staff are going to be motivated to work hard. This is a mistake having motivated employees is essential for the success of your business so you have to make sure that you figure out how to make it happen.
The biggest reason that you are going to want to have motivated employees is that they are more productive than employees who are unmotivated. All companies want to have employees who are as productive as possible since that gets you more work done for less expense. Really the only way to make your employees more productive is to make sure that they are motivated to work harder. This can be a real challenge since a lot of employees really are not very motivated and have a hard time seeing where it would benefit them to work harder.
Another important reason that you are going to want to have motivated employees is that they are representatives of your company. If employees don't like their jobs of if they are disinterested it is going to show and that is going to make your business look bad to your potential customers.
Motivated employees are also a lot easier to retain than employees who lack motivation. It costs a lot of money to hire and train new employees so retaining staff is important for most companies. This is much easier if you have employees who really want to work there and are motivated to do their best work. Employees who lack motivation usually leave fairly quickly and move onto other jobs. In some cases this may actually be a good thing for employees who lack motivation but if it is happening on a regular basis there is a problem that needs to be addressed.
A lack of motivation tends to be contagious so it is something that you are going to make sure that you put a stop to. If you have a few employees who are not performing well you are likely going to find that the other employees start losing motivation as well. Nobody wants to work hard if they think that other people aren't putting in the same effort. This is why it is so important that you make sure that everybody is motivated to work hard. Just one person who isn't will bring down the rest of the team.
QUESTION 3 Analyze the difference between hygiene factors and motivators.
Herzberg's findings revealed that certain characteristics of a job are consistently related to job satisfaction, while different factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. These are as follows.
Factors for Satisfaction
Factors for Dissatisfaction
The work itself
Relationship with Supervisor and Peers
The conclusion he drew is that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not opposites.
The opposite of Satisfaction is No Satisfaction. The opposite of Dissatisfaction is No Dissatisfaction.
Solving the causes of dissatisfaction will not create satisfaction. And also it would not eliminate job dissatisfaction just by adding the factors of job satisfaction. If you have a hostile work environment, giving someone a promotion will not make him or her satisfied. If you create a healthy work environment but do not provide members of your team with any of the satisfaction factors, the work they're doing will still not be satisfying.
According to Herzberg, the factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. Therefore, if you try eliminating dissatisfying job factors you may create peace, but not necessarily enhance performance.
The characteristics associated with job dissatisfaction are called hygiene factors. When these have been correctly addressed, people will not be dissatisfied or satisfied. If you want to motivate your team, you then have to focus on satisfaction factors like achievement, recognition, and responsibility.
QUESTION 4 Evaluate the benefits to organisations of using different motivation approaches.
Motivation in an organization is a must to get the best productivity. To achieve the maximum productivity organizations adopt different motivational theories. Each motivational theory has its unique ways of motivating factors and they address different aspects of organization. Adopting these theories would result in addressing many factors and maximizing the productivity. Following are unique characteristics of each theory.
Taylor Employees do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control. Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks. Employees should then be given appropriate training and tools so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task. Employees are then paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time. As a result employees are encouraged to work hard and maximize their productivity. Taylor’s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs. Taylor’s approach has close links with the concept of an autocratic management style. However employees soon came to dislike Taylor’s approach as they were only given non interesting, repetitive tasks to carry out and were being treated little better than human machines. Firms could also afford to lay off workers as productivity levels increased. This led to an increase in strikes and other forms of industrial action by dissatisfied employees.
Maslow Maslow came up with a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work. All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy and only once a lower level of need has been fully met, would an employee be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. For example a person who is not well would be more concerned about being healthy than worrying about job security. A business should therefore offer different incentives to employees in order to help them fulfill each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy. Managers should also recognize that employees are not all motivated in the same way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may therefore have to offer different sets of incentives schemes from worker to worker.
Herzberg Herzberg believed in a two factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder. However there were also factors that would demotivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder. Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself. For an example how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. Hygiene factors are factors which ‘surround the job’ rather than the job itself. For example an employee will only turn up to work if a business has provided a reasonable level of pay and safe working conditions but these factors will not make him work harder at his job once he is there.
Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are as follows.
Job enlargement – workers being given a wider task to perform which should make the work more interesting. Job enrichment - involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement.
Mayo Mayo believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs which could be fulfilled at work. Following are the factors that Mayo thought would motivate employees.
Better communication Greater manager involvement Working in groups or teams
In practice of this theory businesses should reorganize production to encourage team working and change the structure in departments to encourage greater manager involvement in looking after employee’s interests.
As I mentioned above each theory has its own strengths. As an organization we are to adopt as much as to have a motivated working environment to get the maximum productivity from the workforce.