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Motor Vehicle Accidents

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    (World Bank Classification, 2012)We live in a fast world, everyday is a race with time, and everybody is speeding through life. In order to spare a few more minutes to reach the desired destination, a life threatening danger awaits drivers, that is motor vehicle accidents. Motor vehicle accidents occur everywhere at anytime. In order to understand the result that causes deaths on motor vehicle users, three areas of analysis should be considered. These areas are magnitude, distribution and determinants of motor vehicle accidents.

    A factor that can lead to an increase in the awareness behind motor vehicle accidents is the comparison of a high-income country to a middle-income country. Not to mention that the main reason behind MVA’s is speeding. Interventions by governments can reduce fatalities due to this critical risk factor. The amounts of deaths that occur in the world because of motor vehicle accidents exceed the normal rate of any other global problem. On a global measure the fatality rates are significantly on the increase. Motor vehicle accidents occur every minute of the day (USA Coverage).

    Therefore, the magnitude of motor vehicle accidents around the planet is above the normal scale of any global problem. The most recurring deaths in hospital wards are caused by Ischemic heart disease, which inflicts a percentage of 12. 6 percent of death rates each year (World Health Organization, 2009). On the other hand, deaths affected by motor vehicle accidents is a percentage of 28. 5 per 100 000 population, with a percentage rate of 2. 1 percent of death rates each year. (World Health Organization, 2009). These figures show the severity of motor vehicle accidents, and how important it is to decrease the amount of deaths per annum. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2004) In the contrary, road traffic injuries and fatalities are on the rise. According to the (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2004) deaths caused by diseases and other injuries in 2002 were categorized into 10 rankings. The ranking for Road Traffic Injuries was the 10th on the world. In comparison to year 2030, the statistics show that the ranking of road traffic injuries and deaths will rise to the 8th rank on a global perspective. The distribution of deaths and injuries in accidents is determined by several factors such as: the type of road users, sex, age and time.

    Taking to account that there are fatal motor accidents in every country and in every day. Pedestrians are more at risk by this issue than drivers. According to an article that evaluated the accidents that appeared in India. Road users who are affected the most by motor vehicle accidents were pedestrians. (Dr. Singh & Dhattarwal, 2004) Furthermore, the article made by (Dr. Singh & Dhattarwal, 2004) suggests that males are affected by motor crashes more than females. The death ratio by motor vehicle accidents in males to females is 9:1. The article also reveals that young adult age groups dominate motor vehicle accidents.

    According to (World Health Organization, 2009), the age group that is more at risk by motor vehicle accidents are aged from 15-29 years. Ranked 1st on the leading causes of deaths to that age group. (World Health Organization, 2009) Moreover, the distributions of motor vehicle accidents occur in some seasons more than others. According to (Spasova, 2012) car accidents increased from the months October to December. This article illustrates the amount of deaths that occur in the weather seasons in (Sofia, Bulgaria) while in other seasons road accidents slightly decrease.

    Therefore, the time of the season affects the numbers of accidents. (Spasova, 2012) There are lots of determinants that are responsible for Motor Vehicle Accidents around the world, especially in middle or low-income countries. Whether it was a social or an environmental and or a behavioral determinant. As well as, a lot of major Motor Vehicle Accidents occur in high-income countries. Therefore, the basis of the analysis upon Motor Vehicle Accidents is not determined by the income of a particular country, the economy of a country can reduce fatality rates by educating the population.

    But to completely erase such a global problem from a country is nearly impossible. The poor suffers the most from Motor Vehicle Accidents. Whether it was because of being raised in a particular way to behave in a negligent way. “60% percent of Nairobi’s population lives in slums”. (World Health Organization, 2009) Or because of the environment in the country they are living in. “The air in Mumbai is the equivalent of smoking two and a half packs of cigarettes per day” (World Health Organization, 2009) or they are uneducated. In China 150000 children are living and working on the streets” (World Health Organization, 2009). These are all determinants on how Motor Vehicle Accidents occur regularly in poor, middle and high-income countries. Comparing a high-income country such as Saudi Arabia to a middle-income country like Egypt shows the differences between each population and how both countries are impacted by the biggest global concern. Motor Vehicle Accidents inflict a lot of damage on both countries. Saudi Arabia was considered one of the highest countries with mortality rates from Motor Vehicle Accidents. World Health Organization, 2009) Saudi Arabia has recorded 4 million traffic accidents, leading to 86,000 deaths and 611,000 injuries (Joffe-Walt, 2010). One of the major problems that cause MVAs in Saudi Arabia is its youth. The youth have nothing to do but go around the streets and drive their new cars, while speeding and drifting. “the country’s principal cause of death in adult males aged 16 to 36” (Joffe-Walt, 2010) This issue causes lots of deaths to young Saudi Arabian’s and because of the lack of education towards MVA the youth tend to not care. There is also not such great education in schools about driving and respecting the road” (Joffe-Walt, 2010) Although, Saudi Arabia is considered a high-income country the government does not provide the youth a chance to learn about motor vehicle accidents in an effective way. Therefore, major traffic accidents occur because of this issue. In contrast, Egypt faces similar consequences from motor vehicle accidents. The fatality rates are less than in Saudi Arabia. (World Health Organization, 2009) One of the major causes of motor vehicle accidents is on railways.

    Because the government does not provide rules and regulations towards railway safety control “Road and rail accidents claimed over 7,000 lives in Egypt in 2010. ” (Ahram Online,, 2011) This number is on the increase, whether it was because of the huge amount of uneducated population. Or because of human errors that the road workers perform “Human error was blamed for the majority — 60 per cent — of road accidents ”. (Ahram Online,, 2011) According to (World Health Organization) there are laws in Egypt for speeding, blood alcohol concentration, seat belt wearing but they are poorly enforced.

    Which leads the population to undermine these laws. The differences between Saudi Arabia and Egypt in relationship with Motor Vehicle Accidents are significant. The majority of Saudi Arabian children and youth are studying in national schools. While in Egypt the majority of children are uneducated “The rate of Illiteracy in Egypt is decreasing more slowly compared to other developing countries. ” (Hollenbeck, 2012) Being educated is a big factor in preventing motor vehicle accidents. In the contrary, the Egyptian government cannot afford implementing a system to decrease Motor Vehicle Accidents.

    Especially in a period of time were politics is taking a big impact on Egypt. The differences are quite similar between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Education about motor vehicle accidents, seatbelt awareness and youth education should be a regulated law to be considered in both countries. There are many risk factors that affect drivers to have motor vehicle accidents. Whether it was negligence driving, drink driving, and or Speeding. All these risks tend to be one of many major factors to lead drivers to have a motor vehicle accident.

    The main causes of death in motor vehicle accidents around youth tend to be speeding. Adrenalin is pumped throughout the body of a young adult, which leads to speeding and then drifting. In most cases the young adult experiences that “Fun time”. The young adult is in danger of losing that precious soul. After a few seconds this young adult dies. These kinds of tragedies happened to many young adults who just got their license and they tend to think they are in the movie “Fast and Furious”. Speeding is considered a major causation of deaths in many countries.

    The problem with speeding is inexperienced drivers. Especially, the youth tend to speed to either attract attention or to have a good time. When a young adult rides a motorcycle and then start speeding, the death of that young adult is almost certain. Especially if there is no supervision and proper equipment, speeding involves interacting with a lot of other motor vehicles. In-fact, Many deaths occur to pedestrians because of the behavior of young adults who are negligent drivers. Speeding among young adults was introduced in the late 80’s in race shows. It became popular after the media publicized it.

    Without having a thought that it will cause the youth to start implementing what they have seen on TV. According to (DriveSteady, 2011)  “Drivers between the ages of 16 and 19 are four times more likely to die in a crash than drivers between the ages of 25 and 69. ” This statistical overview shows the significant impact that faces young adults while they are driving. (Emirates 247, 2013) Major interventions were implemented to stop the youth from speeding, but not one single intervention made the youth stop completely. Saudi Arabia faces this problem every single day of every single year. The Road Of Death” is a very well known road in Saudi Arabia that young adults have heard about or have been there, to either watch or speed. YouTube shows how many thousands of young adults die in front of a camera because of speeding. Moreover, the world tends to face speeding in a very strict manner. In many countries speeding is severely punishable by law. Resulting in a trip to the court and in many cases the loss of the license or even imprisonment to the driver. Although, there are regulations upon such a crime, youth disregard all these rules and do it anyway.

    The theory of planned behavior (TBP) was implemented by lots of countries to reduce speeding fatalities and injuries (Stead, Tag, MacKintosh, & Eadie, 2004). This intervention was first introduced in the Scottish road safety campaign in 1998. The study analyzed the behavioral and psychological factors behind speeding. In particular the study was aimed to reduce fatality rates from drivers who speed. TBP allowed governments to produce various forms of interventions for speeding. Through T. V advertisements about speeding and the consequences behind it, drivers are well informed of the outcomes of such negligence.

    Educating drivers about the outcomes of speeding through T. V advertisements was an essential intervention to reduce Motor Vehicle Accidents. Advertisements are a very good source for educating people. Therefore, the major intervention that T. V channels took in place was giving drivers the ability to see the results of speeding. A recent Television advertisement by the “pinkie campaign” was introduced through the RTA in New South Wales. “No one thinks big of you” anti-speeding advertisement showed the way that drivers when they speed they want to impress people.

    In the advertisement there are several young adults who start speeding in front of pedestrians. Each time the driver speeds the pedestrian’s look at each other while wiggling their little fingers as to illustrate that what the drivers are doing is immature. (RTA, 2007) Anti-speeding campaigns are significantly implemented in a large number of countries around the world. These campaigns are aimed to psychologically affect the audience, to not speed. TBP demonstrated the importance of such strategy to reduce Motor Vehicle Accidents. The behavioral factor behind speeding was that drivers want to reach their destination in a faster method.

    The significance of anti-speeding campaigns through television commercials was indeed a slight success. A lot of young adult male drivers stopped such attitude towards driving. But because of the underlying behavior of young adults they tend to ignore these anti-speeding commercials and still speed. Although, anti-speeding campaigns had a slight success in high-income countries, implementing such strategies in Low-income or middle-income countries is a lot more difficult. The economies of such countries do not allow people to have television access. Having anti-speeding advertisements in such countries will not reach the poor.

    Especially in countries that are in need to have Motor vehicle and anti-speeding awareness (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Egypt etc. ) The government does not have the economy to provide their citizens with such luxury. A lot of poor or middle-income countries do not have T. V channels. Or to the extreme cannot provide Internet access to citizens. Moreover, anti-speeding campaigns should be implemented in poor and middle-income countries more than high-income countries, whether the source of the campaign is by presenting in a group or by educating people in person.

    In conclusion, this topic introduced very important measures to decrease deaths and injuries behind motor vehicle accidents. The magnitude, distribution and determinants allowed the reader to understand the severity of the motor vehicle accidents that happened around the world. Nevertheless, Motor vehicles are heavy machinery that should be taken very seriously and negligence towards using it can lead to death. References U. S department of transportation . (2002). Pedestrain Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System. Retrieved from PEDSAFE: http://www. walkinginfo. org/pedsafe/crashstats. fm#magnitude USA Coverage. (n. d. ). How many Driving accidents occur each year? Retrieved from USA Coverage: http://www. usacoverage. com/auto-insurance/how-many-driving-accidents-occur-each-year. html World Bank Classification. (2012, 07 13). Egypt Data. Retrieved from World Bank Classification: http://data. worldbank. org/country/egypt-arab-republic World Bank Classification. (2012, 07 13). Data about Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from World Bank Classification: http://data. worldbank. org/country/saudi-arabia World Health Organization. (2009). Global Status report on road safety. World Health Organization.

    Ahram Online,. (2011, July 31). Number killed in Egyptian car crashes last year exceeds Revolution’s martyrs. Retrieved 8 2, 2011, from Ahram Online: http://english. ahram. org. eg/NewsContent/3/12/17543/Business/Economy/Number-killed-in-Egyptian-car-crashes-last-year-ex. aspx Emirates 247. (2013, April 1). Saudi stunt drivers defy death: Report. Retrieved April 7, 2013 , from Emirates 24/7: http://www. emirates247. com/news/region/saudi-stunt-drivers-defy-death-report-2013-04-01-1. 500919 Dr. Singh, H. , & Dhattarwal, S. K. (2004). PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF INJURIES IN FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN ROHTAK

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