Mozart Jupiter Symphony

Symphony Analysis Bars 1-16 In this essay I will be writing about the opening first 16 bars of the Mozart Symphony Jupiter (K551), starting off in C major, common time. [1] The opening bar introduces the first Antecedent idea, consisting of an octave C in all instruments. This is then followed by ascending semiquaver triplet runs, in the strings and woodwind, from G to C which have a decoration-like affect. This is juxtaposed against the timpani and the brass still carry on with octave C’s. This first idea is in a forte dynamic. [1] 2] The consequent idea, only involving the strings and no contrabass, starts in bar 3 with the anacrusis from the first violin in bar 2. This second idea contrasts with the first idea shown in bar one with its piano dynamic and homophonic texture. What is uncommon about this bar is that the viola is above the 2nd violin in pitch. This creates warmth to the chord as the notes are very close together and this also emphasises the resolutions in the chord. [2] [3]The first 2 beats of bar 3 contains G major 7th chord with a suspended 4th. The last two beats of bar 3 is a C major suspended 9th chord.

Throughout these two chords the violoncello and the 2nd violin are moving in 3rds and the 1st violin providing both the melody and the suspensions. The viola is sustaining a pedal note of G which allows the chords flow nicely from one to the other as the note G is a note that all the chords have in common. These two ideas in the first subject make up the periodic phrase. [3] [4] The fifth bar imitates the idea shown in bar one except it has been transposed down a forth. The F sharp is misleading making you think that this has modulated into the key of G major however this is just an ccidental to make a semitone interval between F sharp and G and to preserve the character of the phrase. In bar 7 the second idea has been brought back however this time using chords C major with a suspended 9th, G major 7 followed by a plagal Cadencial 6-4 cadence in the key of C. This also is a slight change in the shape of the melody allowing the audience to recognise the melody from earlier but not to making the melody seem repetitive. [4] Bars 9-16 are a tutti fanfare section. Violin 2 and the viola have an inversion of the ascending triplet however this time there is an added note.

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Throughout these bars also there is a fanfare rhythm in the brass, woodwind and percussion. [pic] From bars 9-11 its moves through the chords of C, F and G7 all of which have C in the bass. The use of C’s in the bass act as a pedal note, making sure that the sense of C in the key remains. Violin 1, the cello and the contrabass all play on beats 1 and 4 from bars 9 onwards. This creates and up beat effect physiologically making the piece feel as though it is speeding up. [pic] [pic] From bars 12-14 it moves through the chords of C, F and G with added accidentals to maintain character of the idea.

From bars 15 to 16 the rate of harmonic change increases switching between C and G chords. These first 16 bars have developed 2 main ideas of the period phrase. Jupiter symphony analysis Bars 17-120 Bar 17 is made up of a C major chord with different inversions of the chord on each beat. The first beat of the bar, 1st violins double stop the first beat [1] this ensures all 3 notes are played. Bar 18 consists of a descending C major arpeggio played in octaves [1]. Figure [1] Bar 19 and 20 have a two part texture. The horns are working with the woodwind, playing on beats 1, 2 and 4 in bar 19 and playing on beats 2 and 4 in bar 20 [2].

This makes up on part of the texture. The other half is played by the strings. The strings play a rhythm that is against the woodwind rhythm [3]. Using an upbeat rhythm gives a majestic feel to the piece. The chords used throughout bars 17-23 are C and G major. V-I cadences are frequently used throughout this section. [pic] Figure [2] Figure 3 The 1st subject section ends with a G major chord in root position. Bars 23 and 24 create a V-1 cadence in C major. Bar 24 starts the transposition section. Its purpose is to modulate from C to G major.

In bar 24 the flute and the oboe start the new theme in parallel 6ths whilst the strings still carry the essence of the 1st subject [4][5]. In bar 25 the flute and oboe have a descending quaver run in parallel 3rd s [4]. This is a counter melody, the quavers move whilst every other instrument is resting. In bar 25 the woodwind are making the chord of G7 root on the first two beats then C major root on the second beat. The melody provided by the strings in this bar is a part of the second idea in the first subject [5]. The melody finishes off the chords as well as provides a melody. pic] Figure [4] Figure [5] Bar 26 begins with a G major chord. When put against bar 25 it creates a V-I cadence in C major or a cadencial 6/4 in G major. In bar 31 to 35 a circle of 5ths sequence take place. The rhythm of the violins are similar to what was played in bars 19-29. The last quaver of each bar in the string part finishes off the chord made by the woodwind. Bar 35 starts on an F major chord. When put against bar 34 it creates V-I cadence in F major [6]. Figure 6 Figure 7

In bar 36 a D7 chord is used, formed by a chromatic note in the bass [7]. This then leads to the transition theme but in G major. The semiquaver runs in the strings from the dominant to the tonic secure the key of G major. In bars 39 the bassoon is playing a sequence with violin 2. The sequence keeps moving up a semitone. Recapitulation of the fanfare rhythm is introduced in bars 45 in the brass. The use of all chromatic notes weakens the sense of G major. In bar 48 the same method is used to get from A minor to A major, using a chromatic note in the base. This A major is a part of a secondary dominant V-I cadence in D major.

The fanfare rhythm is used again and an inversion of the first Idea in the 1st subject is used in the strings. A temporary modulation occurs in bar 50 with violin 2; a C natural is used in the descending runs [8]. This is because it’s the secondary dominant. The violins are playing on beats one and 4 throughout bars 49- 54 to give a sense of movement. Figure 8 In bar 55 a strong D major root chord is played, three beats later the 2nd subject begins in G major. This is a V-I cadence in G major. The C natural played earlier and the 3 beats silence makes the cadence feel right.

The second subject starts in the key of G major however the sense of key is weak. The main idea is made from the chromatic idea used in the bass at bar 36. These are the broken chords. First idea Second idea Third idea Throughout bars 59- 73 only G and D chords are used. From bars 62-72 10 bar phrasing is used. In bar 61 a chromatic scale starting on a leads to a V-I cadence in G major [9]. Throughout this section, violin 2 has broken chords of G, D, D7, Emin and Amin. [pic] Figure 9

Parallel 3rds are introduced in bar 67-68 in the flute and oboe [10]. [pic] Figure [10] The melody in bars 73-74 is a sequence. Bars 77-79 are also a sequence. This weakens the sense of key. Bar 81 starts with a strong C minor chord in root position. The timpani have a dotted fanfare rhythm and acciaccaturas are used in the woodwind and strings. In bar 83 a C major Chord is used and in the second half of the bar a G# is played by the oboe and upper strings. This resolves to A in the next bar. This is taken from 56. Bars 88 onwards develop the idea. A sequence is added, based around the second idea of the 1st subject, in bars 89-91.

In bar 100 a D7 descending broken chord is played which provides a V-I cadence in G. Bar 10 opens the closing theme which is a new structural section. It has very operatic style to is and isn’t very symphonic. Throughout this section the cello provides broken chords and the contra bass provides the tonic of the chord on the first beat of each bar. The violin has articulation based around how this section of music would be sung. The bassoon joins in with the melody and plays it in octave with the violin in bar 105 onward. In bar 107 the same rhythm is used from the 2nd idea of the first subject [11]. [pic] Figure [11]

Bars 117-120 are made up of D and G major chords. The first violins carry the idea of the 1st subject. Bars 117-119 have V-I cadence in G build up to the last G major root chord at the end of the section. [pic] ———————– V – I I – V V – 1 C#dim7, A maj7, A? dim7, Dmaj3rd inv, Bdim7, G7 , G? dim7 G major root???????????????????????????????????????????? j?????? C????? [pic]???? H? H??? C?????? J? J? D7 3rd inv D7 2nd inv, D5 Aug 2nd inv (Fanfare) B Dim root A minor 1st inv G7 2nd inv C major Dim b7 D min dim

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