Myer-Briggs Type Indicator - Psychology Essay Example

 

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Myer-Briggs Type Indicator is a psychometric tool, particularly helpful for individuals and teams in needing to adapt quickly to new and changing industrial environments.  The purposes of the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator is to enable employees understand their types as per psychological types described by C. G. Jung. This will help employees understand their personality types and their relation to the job and surroundings. Though humans being are of many types basic area of personalities can be Extroverts, Introverts, Sensors, Intuitive, Thinkers, Judgers and perceivers.

The purpose of the exercise is to identify various kinds of personalities in different levels of management and effectively use them to satisfy their job position. Another purpose may be to help the employee understand he/she to understand their job with the perception of their human nature and personality.

Here few questionnaires will be placed in-front of the subject or the employee. Each employee will be answering the questions as per their judgment of themselves. (Lamb, 2004)

Summary

Eight psychological types are categorized are Extraverted Sensation, Introverted Sensation, Extraverted Intuition, Introverted Intuition, Extraverted Thinking, Introverted Thinking, Extraverted Feeling and Introverted Feeling. Whereas people with Extraversion preferences, flow is directed outward towards people, object and surrounding. Myer-Briggs judging functions are thinking and feeling. To begin with Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing, few questions will be put in front of each employee. And as per their function pairs, attitudes, judging functions or perceiving functions their types will be found out. Here is a plan to do Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing. All employees are required to attend this test, Myer-Briggs Type Indicator profiles are required by the Personnel Department.

Introduction

The basic idea of Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing is to enable employees what ever rank and position they hold in the organization. Myer-Briggs testing emphasizes on the fact that human behavior how much they look random and, act and behave differently to same situation is actually quite orderly and consistent.

As per C.G. Jung, there are four basic functions of consciousness. Out of them two are perceived functions sensation and intuition. And other two are judging function namely thinking and feeling. These functions are modified by the two main attitude types Introversion and extroversion.  He also says that whichever function dominates consciousness of a particular person in question its opposite behavior is reserved and will exemplify cataleptic behavior. So accordingly eight psychological types are categorized are Extraverted Sensation, Introverted Sensation, Extraverted Intuition, Introverted Intuition, Extraverted Thinking, Introverted Thinking, Extraverted Feeling and Introverted Feeling.

However the principle behind Myer-Briggs is that the individuals find certain ways of thinking or interpretation of certain situations and act easier than others. The Myer-Briggs Type Indicator tries to sort some of these psychological opposites into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible combinations. Here nothing is considered good or bad or let us say some indicators are better than or perhaps worse than others. They are just indicators of ones behavioral or personality traits. Briggs and Myers tries to find a combination predict that is easier for each of the employees. It is something likes if someone finds it easier to speak Spanish then do not force him to speak not Latin languages. This finding will help employees their psychological preference easier to work out than the opposite even if, over the time they have grown accustomed and even proficient with the practice. These preferences are normally abbreviated with the initial letters of each of their four preferences (except in the case of Intuitive where ‘N’ is taken), for instance:

ESTJ – Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging

INFP – Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling, Perceiving (King, 2006)

And so on for all 16 possible combinations.

(Source: http://www.symlog.com/internet/how_symlog_relates/IMAGES/mbti-16.gif)

The four pairs of preferences or dichotomies are

Dichotomies
Extraversion
Introversion
Sensing
iNtuition
Thinking
Feeling
Judging
Perceiving
The preferences for Extraversion and Introversion are called attitudes (E-I). These functions usually show the behavior of the subject in the external world of action, people and things. On the other hand, behavioral tendencies to the internal world of ideas and reflection is said to be introverted attitude. It has been seen that people or employees designated Extrovert by Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing draw energy from action, i.e. they first act then see the effect of their action, then go to the next part. Conversely if they are inactive for long time their level of energy and motivation goes on a downward trend. But people referred as introvert are less energized in comparison they prefer to introspect the immediate situation and then act, and then reflect again. People with Introversion preferences need lot of time to think and build energy in the process. The flow of ideas of people with Introversion preferences, flow is directed inwards towards ideas and concepts. Whereas people with Extraversion preferences, flow is directed outward towards people, object and surrounding.

Here is how these contrasting characteristics will help the organization is, identifying Extroverts and giving them those parts of the jobs which are action oriented and Performa of job is large. While introverts can be assigned jobs which are self oriented and need depth of understanding.

The Next Indicators are Sensing-Intuition (S-N) and Thinking-Feeling (T-F) dichotomies, which are often called the MBTI Functions. People use sensing and Intuition for gathering information, i.e. they are information-gathering or perceiving functions. They describe how people use and interpret information.

It is found that people or employees with a preference for sensing prefer to trust information that is in the present, tangible and concrete do not believe on hunches. They prefer detail and facts, for that matter meaning in the data itself. On the other hand, those with a preference for intuition tend to trust information that cannot be perceived by five senses. They believe in more abstract or theoretical information which might have wider or undefined patterns. They usually make or look at long term goals or future possibilities.

Myer-Briggs judging functions are thinking and feeling. Both these people thinking and feeling types make logical choices based on the data from their functions of Sensing and intuition (S-N). People with Feeling preference take decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, weighing all options, finding the one with greatest harmony and fitting the particular situation, and also keeping in mind the expectations of the people involved in the process. Thinking preference types, take a more isolated or disconnected point of view, weighing the reasonable one that is more logical, fundamental, regular and identical to a given set of rules.

Myers and Briggs also found two Function pairs and Attitudes, Judging function (T or F) or their Perceiving function (S or N). Myers and Briggs called this a person’s “ambassador,” that is, the one sent forth to deal with the world. It has been seen that Judging-Perceiving dichotomy also has as relation with brain hemisphere dominance. Judging is seen to be linked with left brain dominance, and Perceiving is linked with right brain dominance. (King, 2006)

The determination of Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing is not just about sum of the four individual preferences but also in the way each of the preferences interacts through type dynamics and type development.

Proposed task – questionnaires

To begin with Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing, few questions will be put in front of each employee. And as per their function pairs, attitudes, judging functions or perceiving functions their types will be found out. All questions are of YES or NO type. Questions in each column will hold one mark each, based on the result inclination towards each indicator will be found. And subsequently their will be found out.

Here are few proposed questionnaires to be put in-front of each participating candidate for Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing.

EXTROVERT                                                         INTROVERT

You have high energy.

You like to talk a lot.

You often think out loud.

You figure things out by talking about them.

You like to be around people a lot.

You may like to be alone part of the time, but knowing when you’ll be with people is very important.

You like to be the center of attention.

You develop ideas through discussion.
You have quiet energy.

You like to talk less and think quietly inside your head.

You prefer to solve problems alone, perhaps asking others’ opinions once you have the options figured out.

While you enjoy other people, being with them does drain your energy.

You prefer a small group of people you already know.

You proceed cautiously in meeting people.
SENSOR                                                                    INTUITIVE

You are more present-oriented and down-to-earth.

You prefer to work with facts, data, and details.

You are focused on the physical world – the here and now.

You need evidence and facts.

You mostly rely on past experiences.

You value security.
You are more future oriented and idealistic.

You are focused on the mental or spiritual world.

You are focused on ideas and the big picture.

You are original, complex, and deep.

You admire creativity.

You value freedom.
JUDGER                                                                   PERCEIVER

You are serious and formal.

You like to make decisions.

You like to organize and make plans.

You pay attention to time.

You use schedules and timetables as a guide.

You like to work first, play later.

You like to finish projects best.
You are playful and casual.

You like to postpone some decisions, if you can.

You like to keep plans flexible, and you are able to adopt to new circumstances quickly.

You like to wait-and-see.

You are less aware of time or late.

You do whatever comes up.
(wzsn, 2007)

After answering these questions 16 Myer-Briggs Type can be found. A brief if their personality traits is given below

“ISTJ

Quite, serious, earn success by thoroughness and dependability. Practical, matter-of-fact, realistic, and responsible. Decide logically, orderly and organized. Value traditions and loyalty.

ISFJ

Quiet, friendly, responsible, loyal and conscientious. Committed, thorough, painstaking, and accurate. Orderly and harmonious work and at home.

INFJ

Seek meaning and connection in ideas, relationships, and material possessions. Conscientious and committed to their firm values. Organized and decisive in implementing their vision.

INTJ

Have original minds and great drive for implementing their ideas and achieving their goals. When committed, organize a job and carry it through. Skeptical and independent, have high standards of competence and performance.

ISTP

Tolerant and flexible. Interested in cause and effect, organize facts using logical principles, value efficiency.

ISFP

Quiet, friendly, sensitive, and kind. Loyal and committed to their values and to people who are important to them. Dislike disagreements and conflicts, do not force their opinions or values on others.

INFP

Idealistic, loyal to their values and to people who are important to them. Curious, quick to see possibilities, can be catalysts for implementing ideas. Adaptable, flexible, and accepting unless a value is threatened.

INTP

Theoretical and abstract. Quiet, contained, flexible, and adaptable. Have unusual ability to focus in depth to solve problems in their area of interest.

ESTP

Flexible and tolerant. They want to act energetically to solve the problem. Spontaneous, enjoy each moment, enjoy material comforts and style.

ESFP

Outgoing, friendly, and accepting. Learn best by trying a new skill with other people.

ENFP

Warmly enthusiastic and imaginative. Spontaneous and flexible, often rely on their ability to improvise and their verbal fluency.

ENTP

Quick, ingenious, stimulating, alert, and outspoken. Resourceful and love challenging problems. Good at reading other people.

ESTJ

Practical, realistic, matter-of-fact. Decisive, quickly move to implement decisions. Have a clear set of logical standards, systematically follow them and want others to also. Forceful in implementing their plans.

ESFJ

Warmhearted, conscientious, and cooperative. Loyal, follow through even in small matters. Want to be appreciated for who they are and for what they contribute.

ENFJ

Warm, empathetic, responsive, and responsible. Highly attuned to the emotions, needs, and motivations of others. Loyal, responsive to praise and criticism.

ENTJ

Frank, decisive, assume leadership readily. Quickly see illogical and inefficient procedures and policies, develop and implement comprehensive systems to solve organizational problems. Forceful in presenting their ideas.” (Andstuffso, 2006)

A sample is given below.

(Source:http://www.interweaveconsulting.com/h/IFAQs.html&h=401&w=391&sz=26&hl=en&start=4&um=1&tbnid=e3FFo77Cj6AOsM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3DMBTI%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DG)

Schedule (make a chart with dates)

Here is a plan to do Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing. All departments are required to participate in the process. All Departmental Managers are therefore advised to make inter-departmental schedule of who (employee) can be released on which date. Even managers and administrative staff are advised to participate in the process and know their types.

Personnel Department requires all departmental managers to submit their schedules along with the list of employees participating in the process of Myer-Briggs Type Indicator. Not all employees are required for the time. 10% of employees of each department maximum being 25, being sent each time. 10% employees are requested on the basis that the departmental function is not affected. All employees are required to attend this test, Myer-Briggs Type Indicator profiles are required by the Personnel Department. Departmental managers are requested to see that while scheduling for their department don’t fall in line with employees doing night shift. (Lamb, 2004)

Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing is scheduled on every Friday i.e. weekends presuming Fridays are week ends of the department. All tests will happen 3pm to 5pm.

[Some presumptions made on the organization. Only used as basis for calculation.

Employee strength is 1000.

2% is Top Level employees. (20 employee) (Average Per hour salary $125)

18% is middle Level. (180 employee) (Average Per hour salary $75)

80% First level (800 employee) (Average Per hour salary $40)

Assuming there are 10 departments.

Few assumptions on each department

Department 1 has 100 employees

Department 2 has 100 employees

Department 3 has 150 employees

Department 4 has 50 employees

Department 5 has 50 employees

Department 6 has 150 employees

Department 7 has 50 employees

Department 8 has 150 employees

Department 9 has 50 employees

Department 10 has 150 employees]

(It is assumed that max of 50 employees are taken each time owing to constraints of room with Personnel Department)

Proposed Schedule (For clarifications contact Personnel department)

Name of Department
Date
Time Allocated
Department 1 [50 employees]
29 – Feb – 2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 1  [50 employees]
7 – Mar – 2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 2  [50 employees]
14 – Mar – 2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 2  [50 employees]
21 – Mar – 2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 3  [50 employees]
28 – Mar – 2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 3  [50 employees]
4 – Apr –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 3  [50 employees]
11 – Apr –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 4  [50 employees]
18 – Apr –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 5  [50 employees]
25 – Apr –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 6  [50 employees]
2 – May –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 6  [50 employees]
9 – May –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 6  [50 employees]
16 – May –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 7  [50 employees]
23 – May –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 8  [50 employees]
30 – May –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 8  [50 employees]
6 – Jun –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 8  [50 employees]
13 – Jun –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 9  [50 employees]
20 – Jun –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 10  [50 employees]
27 – Jun –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 10  [50 employees]
4 – Jul –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Department 10  [50 employees]
11 – Jul –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Absentees (any Department)
18 – Jul –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Absentees (any Department)
25 – Jul –  2008
3 – 5 PM
Departmental Heads
13 – Aug – 2008
3 – 5 PM
Note – All absent or unavailable during normal course of Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing will have to be present on 18–Jul-2008 & 25–Jul-2008.

All departmental heads please note that your presence is required on 13–Aug-2008

After conduction Myer-Briggs Type Indicator testing all departmental heads will given a brief of each employee Type and their personality analysis to help them to reorient their departments and make best use of the individual abilities.

BUDGET

For approval of such exercise by Personnel department there is need of budget and departmental approvals as hours spent each employee in such exercise is cost. This exercise will effect production however small as only 10% force is taken out each time. (Here in the costing, loss due to loss of production is not taken into account as it differs from company to company.)

Cost of stationary                              $2,500 (printed material and pen)

Cost of Employees                            $5,000 (top level employees) 20 x 2hrs @$125

$27,000 (middle level employee) 180 x 2hrs @$75

$64,000 (First level employee) 800 x 2hrs @ $40

Cost of employee (Personnel Dept)  $1950  26 hrs @ $75

Cost of Electricity                             $1000

Cost of Room for Rent                     Free (Company premises is used)

Total                                       $101,450

 

 

 

 

References:

Andstuffso; (2007); Page 86; andstuffso.com; retrieved on 20.02.2008 from http://www.andstuffso.com/?page_id=86

King, H; (2006); Management Principals Today; Auckland: HBT & Brooks Ltd

Lamb, D; (2004); Cult to Culture: The Development of Civilization on the Strategic Strata; Wellington: National Book Trust

WZSN; (2006); MBTI; www.wzsn.net; retrieved on 20.02.2008 from http://www.wzsn.net/mbti.html

Images:

1. http://www.symlog.com/internet/how_symlog_relates/IMAGES/mbti-16.gif

2. http://www.interweaveconsulting.com/h/IFAQs.html&h=401&w=391&sz=26&hl=en&start=4&um=1&tbnid=e3FFo77Cj6AOsM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3DMBTI%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DG

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