Nationalism Case Study Italy and Germany

Emperor Franz Joseph
pressured by the Hungarians, split his Austro-Hungarian Empire in half, declaring Austria and Hungary independent states with himself ruler of both. Austria-Hungary would crumble into separate nation-states after world war I
Types of Nationalism
-unification Examples Italy and Germany
-separation Example Greeks in the Ottoman Empire
-state building Examples Turkey (Ataturk) USA
Aging Empires
Three Aging Empires were: Austrian Hapsburgs,
Russian Romanov, and Ottoman Empire of the Turks. These empires had mixed ethnics groups that were nationalistic. Hungary and Serbia struggled against the Hapsburgs, (Serbia triggered WW I) Greece was the first Balkan state to break from the Ottoman Empire, and many groups, eg. the Baltic area Poland, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians and Finns wanted to be free of Russia.
Russification
the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire
King Victor Emmanuel II
The King of Piedmont that appointed Cavour his Prime Minister and worked to unite Italy.
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Camilo Cavour
appointed Prime Minister of Sardinia in 1852. Working to expand the power of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and using careful diplomacy, making smart alliances, and being clever, he managed to unite all of Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
bold and romantic soldier who led a small army of Italian nationalists, known as the Red Shirts. He marched from Sicily north to the Italian mainland. voters gave him permission to unite the southern areas he conquered with the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. King Victor Emmanuel arranged to meet him at Naples, and he would willingly step aside to let the king rule.
Wilhelm I
Successor of Friedrich Wilhelm IV (who was a
frightened and unstable Prussian king) In contrast Wilhelm I was a Strong-minded ruler, first reformed the army by doubling the already powerful Prussian military, but his liberal parliament refused to give him money for reforms. saw parliament’s refusal as a challenge to his authority, supported by the Junkers, he appointed junkers as ministers and military officers. chose Otto von Bismarck, a junker, as his prime minister.
Junkers
Members of the Prussian land owning aristocracy, a class associated militarism. They were strongly conservative and opposed liberal ideas. (Enlightenment ideas. Rule by consent, etc.)
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire. “Bood and Iron.”
Schleswig and Holstein
Bismarck formed an alliance with Austria to seize these colonies from Denmark. Prussia governed Schleswig and Austria, Holstein. Bismarck then provoked the Seven Week War with Austria by stirring up border conflicts between Schleswig and Holstein.
Seven Weeks War
In 1866 Bismarck provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia, and then in very efficient manner Prussia, with the use of new technology, shocked the world by quickly defeating Austria in seven weeks.
Realpolitik
Politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations. Based on realism, not idealism, in other words, the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism.
Franco-Prussian War
war waged by Bismarck to rally the southern states of Germany. manufactured an “incident” which infuriated the French into starting war. after victory, the southern sates felt the nationalistic pride in the country and the German unification was completed. This ended the rule of Napoleon III. The Paris Commune briefly tried to rule Paris in 1871 after King Wilhelm I of Prussia was crowned emperor at Versailles and the Prussians withdrew from France.
Kaiser
The title of Willem I after the Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of the Second Reich. In German kaiser means emperor. It is taken from Latin, meaning Caesar — like Czar is from Caesar as well.
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