Imperialism was started in the nineteenth century in which it defines several political control forms by a higher and greater power by a nation over the weaker one - Neo Imperialism introduction. (Porter, B.)
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The influence or control over nations by other authoritative nations through changes in economy by means of unjust and unequal stipulations is called neo-imperialism or new imperialism. The existence of neo-imperialism started when there a certain nation is dependent to the other which is much higher in authority. The weaker nation usually dependent to the stronger one due to its capability to survive in their economy in the contemporary world without any assistance given by the stronger or the higher authoritative nation. (Porter, B.)
Neo-imperialism is different from the old system of imperialism just like with the British Empire. Neo-imperialism is not basically a direct excessive requirement of the authority in politics by one community over the other community. It is the used of money as their power in the contemporary world wherein the more stabilized and economical richer countries over the poor countries and thought that they are the ones who managed to take control over that specific poor society. (Callinicos, A. et al.)
However, there are a lot of opportunities that the new imperialism rendered such as advances in technology and medicine. In the 18th century there are two illustrations on these opportunities. One happened in the Niger River during 1846. Medicines were rendered to the people there such as the quinine, a prophylactic drug against malaria. Another, the expedition sent by the British in 1896 to Sudan where there were over 8,000 Mahdists killed in the Battle of Omdurman against them with the used of light artillery and machine guns. (Porter, B.)
In neo-imperialism, actually their main proponents is the use if the arguments in economy where they urge the imperial expansion and building of the empire’s policies. According to King Leopold, King of the Belgians that the main source of the wealth and power of the British is their colonies around the world. (Porter, B.)
The diagram shows the reasons of the economic arguments by which the British colonies needed. These reasons were made by the protagonists. (Porter, B.)
“In the early of twentieth century, the Marxists viewed imperialism as the political and economic dominance in capital of monopolistic finance in most industrialized and advanced nations in which took control over the less evolved nations or countries”. The neo-imperialism or the new imperialism in 19th and 20th century both present same elements. However, these periods shifted to pre-emptive expansion of the colonies due to the ultra-nationalist adoption and the ideologies of racial supremacies. Meanwhile, before the neo-imperialism was established, there are several theories were then made. (Porter, B.)
J.A. Hobson: Accumulation Theory on Imperialism < http://www.liberal-international.org>
The Hobson’s accumulation theory stated that the center of the surplus capital gradually formed in the time of the Second Industrial Revolution. The two theorists J.A, Hobson and Lenin stated this. Both of them connected in the shrinking problem of the continental market resulted to overseas of European capital in distributing the industrialized wealth of the Europe. The wages of the employees and workers were then competed due to the less purchasing power in absorbing amount capital in the time
period of Second Industrial Revolution. In addition to his theory, neo-imperialism is one way in making new markets through overseas. (Cain, P.)
Moreover, he gave reasons why imperialism was then both depraved and undesirable. By the control of the small numbers of capitalists and financiers to all foreign investment, he stated that this group manipulated every standards of the nations involved for there own benefits. IT had also benefited the assistance of the financiers and the harpies (aristocrat families, military, and the manufacturers). He also argued that the there are a lot of institutions and communities were being corrupted by their support to the imperialistic governance. Lastly, all colonized nations were required to pay for imperialism such as higher taxes, low standards of living, wars, resources that is wasted and even lives that were lost with only little benefits and profits to be received. (Cain, P.)
Another theory of the new imperialism is what we called the Lenin’s monopoly capitalism theory.
The theory stated that through the induction of the monopoly capitalism, it helped to seek a new resources and markets by characterizing the highest and last stage of capitalism.
Moreover, it explains the capitalism’s expansion abroad or out from its bombardments on the nation states.
This theory was then developed by the Marxist scholars and termed it as the Capitalistic International Trade and
Lenin: Monopoly Capitalism Theory <http:// www.profesionalespcm.org>
Banking. Lenin’s definition of imperialism is “the highest stage of capitalism.” This when the time that there is dominance on the capital of the monopoly finance through which it drives the corporations and the nation states to increasingly contend for the power over the materials and resources and all world’s markets. Marxist imperialism theory or the dependency theory mainly relates to the economic relationships of the countries not in military or political relations. “The new imperialism comprised the direct power over one nation to another”. However, in the exploitation of the economic figure, it is one area to another. Moreover, Lenin developed five contemporary features since he stated that imperialism is a stage of capitalists. (Lenin, V.I., pp. 667–766)
One of the contemporary features Lenin developed was that the creations of multinational and national monopolies were the results of the concentration in capital and production. In liberal economics, this was not understood but in the power of de facto, the free competition retain. Secondly, the finance capital turned over the dominant form of capital (industrial capital). As a result, the industrial capitalist became dependent on finance capital. Thirdly, the export goods emphasized the export of the finance capital. Fourth, there were international cartel formation and the multinational enterprises developed the division of the world in the economic terms. Lastly, the great powers was then established the political divisions globally. With this, exploitation of the colonies through their exportation of finance capital by the industrialized nations was begun. Their main reason is to have their resources and build opportunities for their investment in their markets. As a result, poorer nations let these stronger nations to have their workers (poorer countries’ workers) to work for them and even provide them with a typical living. (Lenin, V.I., pp. 667–766)
Immanuel Wallerstein developed the third imperialism theory that is the World Systems theory. This conception on imperialism provides counterarguments without defying underlying inferences of Hobson’s theory. He also stated that Mercantilism is the major factor of countries which are semi-peripheral or what he is referring to the countries which were increasingly competitive and newly industrialized one by which it seeks to be the center countries. (Callinicos, A. et al.)
Aside from the theories that created by this scholars, there are a lot of characteristics that the neo-imperialism possesses and there economic interpretations that underlies imperialism.
Self-interest in economy is the only significant motivation.
Conspiracy theories’ inclination
– Evidences are not much that they call the capitalist as puppeteers.
– Imperialism is a convoluted phenomenon. The factors under imperialism can be created in several ways.
– It is a fact that businessman helped imperialism due to their interest in economy by which these businessmen benefited.
– Nationalism and racism were essential primarily because imperialism does not provide benefits in economy according to Hobson. However, many European nations were fairly elite and could afford imperialistic luxury. (Lenin, V.I., pp. 667–766)
With all theories explained above, there are several problems in economy in accordance of the entrance of the neo-imperialism.
Large numbers of the colonies united the new imperialism because many of the capital investments were not went to those colonies.
There were certain cases where in the Cat’s paw Argument is valuable but often specious just like in Egypt. But sometimes the governments stimulated the capitalist and bankers in order to have investments to render to the government as a justification.
In the monopoly stage, many Marxist statements stated that the development of cartels, monopolies, tariffs, and trusts which happened primarily in U.S.A and Germany
Later, Lenin and Marxists described ‘imperialism’ as a stage of uniqueness in capitalism. This was come out from the assertion that there was a difference between the 19th century expansions of the empire from the present imperialism.
Hobson on the other hand stated that higher returns from foreign investment were served as a proof. IT pushes the capitalists to their investors for the returns of the investments were much more profitable (Relative interest rates).
The Marxist stated that everything should be explained by the factors in the economy (Theoretical overkill). Hypothesis is the first and primary step they used and to the test of the hypothesis, their ‘studies’ became not genuine against the studies in order to fit their hypothesis
Lenin stated that the war was a logical and a direct result of imperialism. However, most of the non-Marxist historians and scholars disagreed with the connection of the war and the imperialism since it has been always a supplementary matter (referring to the new imperialism). (Callinicos, A. et al.)
For specific illustration in recent world, the American foreign policy was one and famous example. It is the combination of clear and comprehensive issues of nation’s power, interests, and needs. The combination of moral idealism and real politics has been always remains as an effective foreign policy. (Judis, J.B.)
The September 11 ambush have been describe by the policy of the United States since the new policies features unlimited objectives, unilaterialism and as the primary accessory policy they used the forces of the military troops. These characteristics is just the same in the United States’ historical background in which in 1940 it highlighted the objectives of limited foreign policy, isolationism and the queasiness used of the forces of the military troops outside its boundaries. (Judis, J.B.)
The only way the United States to obtain its security after the September 11 attacked is to build a neo-imperialistic empire. There are basic elements for the empire to be successful that the nation established and enterprise that are: sounds decision on the usage of the forces of the military troops, the capability of the skill diplomat of some alliances that is more stronger than before, creates and implement decision-making based on the assessments of the realistic threats, and lastly, the demands of defending and conducting supports globally. However, problems were encountered in establishing the certain empire. Seeking political military troops globally is one of the serious and major consequences they encountered. (Judis, J.B.)
Current president of the United States of the America, President George W. Bush and together with his administration officials contradicted that their country was enduring to establish a new empire or a new-imperialistic type of system. However, the administration disclaimed that there was a policy of imperialism under President George W. Bush and asserted that the government still committed in the liberal internationalism. (Judis, J.B.)
Like with other nations, the United States of America had stated that they don’t want war to results. However, there were wars in which they said only begun to have freedom principles overseas, the aggression and even the right of self-determination. The United States of America said that they are the ones who are and will be an anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist. They emphasized that every territories and colonies they have will be treated with goodness and kindness and as immediately as the circumstances permitted they will be liberated. (Judis, J.B.)
President George W. Bush. <http:// louisproyect.wordpress.com>
In addition, the United States of America respected each of the rights of the peoples to distinguish their own destiny. Genuine independence will be the primary reason why all of the nations in world fought so basically as what they emphasized, they must not interfere with the internal affairs of the other societies or nations globally whether it would a large or a small nation, a weak or a powerful one. (Judis, J.B.)
The America was considered as the benevolent said it will never exist. It has colonized many large territories from poor or near poor people. The nation America has forced its power over the other nations, against their interest and their wishes. United States of America has been said had violated understandings and treaties between the other nations. (Eland, I.)
Currently, the government of the United States of America has interest in controlling the government where there U.S. interests subordinate in which they will export, refine and ensure the extracted oil and sell them in the favor of the American nation. This will provide them long-term rights to their military forces in any part of the globe. (Callinicos, A. et al.)
In many degrees today, neo-imperialism still exists. The relationship between the Third World countries and the industrialized, stabilized first world countries is the most recent example in our world today. Moreover, the Third world countries today are obviously dependent upon those First world countries especially in terms of economic matters. These poorer nations have to follow with the foreign policies in order to received aids from them. In other words, neo-imperialism shows a great impact in the contemporary world in diplomatic and economic policy in several nations due to strong impact in the international matter of conduct globally. (Eland, I.)
From the old imperialist system, the idea of the neo-imperialism was brought out. With these, there are a lot of nations opposed with the United States that is considered as one of the First World countries. It is manifested to everyone’s point of view that United States is the leader in neo-imperialistic development over other nations. They often believe that this country and its attitude of being a neo-imperialistic country take foreign aid packages and a strong foreign political force in which just like from the old empire of Britain. (Callinicos, A. et al.)
A lot of obvious issues that whether or not this type of foreign policy is right in the moral sense. On the side of the Third World countries, we can see that without the aids from these stronger nations, they might not be able to survive with their present economical status. However, on the First world countries’ part, it does give a huge influence over these Third World countries in terms of foreign policy. (Callinicos, A. et al.)
Neo-imperialism encounters a lot of issues especially to those still developing small nations. Connections with those foreign nations were then studied by a lot of people globally due to its positive and negative results to them. (Eland, I.)
Neo-imperialism has its configurations these includes the cultural imperialism, foreign aid, and western companies. Cultural imperialism is a threat when the weaker nations received aids from the stronger nations. With this, it will result to a clash between the cultures of both nations. This happens when the cultures of the stronger nations obtained by the weaker nation that received aids from them. Alteration will occur and can culture destruction results. Foreign aids are an undeniable tool of relationship internationally. The purpose of foreign aids is to remain the influential sphere of the Western neo-imperialist over the nations and by making them dependent to them. Lastly, the companies form the Western countries that are set up to other nations that are much more industrialized and stable. (Eland, I.)
Cain, P. J.A. Hobson’s Imperialism: A Study: A Centennial Retrospective.< http://www.yale.edu/iss/Hobson-Imperialism-Yale-ISS-Cain.pdf>
Callinicos, A. et al. Marxism and The New Imperialism.
Eland, I. The Empire Strikes Out: The “New Imperialism” and Its Fatal Flaws.
< http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-459es.html >
Judis, J.B. The Folly of the Empire. < http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1467-856X.2006.00251 >
Lenin, V.I. Imperialism: The highest Stage of Capitalism.Volume 1, pp. 667–766.<http:// http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/>
Porter, B. Imperialism and British National Identity. c. 1815-1914.
< http://www.history.ox.ac.uk/currentunder/bibliographies/fhs_hbi_6.pdf >