Neuro Study Guide

- Neuro Study Guide introduction.

THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM

Central Nervous System
* Consists of the brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System
* Consists of somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS)

Somatic Nervous System
* Interacts with the environment
* Carries information from the muscles, skin, etc, to the CNS through
afferent nerves * Carries motor signals from CNS via efferent nerves to muscles (Afferent – approach, Efferent – Exit)

Autonomic Nervous System
* Regulates body’s internal environment
* Consists of nerves connecting to the heart and blood vessels, glands, smooth muscles * Afferent nerves carry sensory info to CNS from internal organs * Efferent nerves carry information from CNS to the internal organs * ANS consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems (Sympathetic – marshals resources for crises, Parasympathetic – conserves resources)

THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM

CNS
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PNS
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SNS
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ANS
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THE SPINAL CORD

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DIVISION IN THE BRAIN

Hindbrain
* Cerebellum
* Balance and coordination
* Execute motor commands
* Fine motor skills
* Some cognitive ability
* Pons
* “Bridges” of Fibres that connect brainstem to Medulla and Cerebellum * Regulates sleep and arousal level, respiration and movement * Medulla Oblongata
* Extension of Spinal cord linking to brain
* Controls heartbeat, breathing and circulation
* Part of the Reticular Formation

HINDBRAIN

Cerebellum
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Pons
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Medulla
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Reticular Formation
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DIVISION OF THE BRAIN

Midbrain
* Tectum
* Vision and Hearing
* Tegmentum
* Movement
* Reticular Formation
* Runs through hind and mid brain
* Implicated in sleep, attention, muscle tone, movement, respiratory reflexes, etc * Modulates neuronal activity throughout CNS

Tectum
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Tegmentum
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Reticular Formation
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DIVISION OF THE BRAIN

Forebrain
* Cerebrum
* 2 cerebral hemispheres with subcortical structures
* Basal Ganglia
* Limbic System*
* Cortex
* Hypothalamus
* Controls ANS
* Regulates basic biological drvies – feeding, mating, fighting, fleeing * Homeostasis
* Tied to endocrine system – stimulates pituitary gland * Thalamus
* Set of nuclei – neuron ceel bodies
* Relay station and info integration – visual, auditory, taste and touch * Interacts with reticular formation, possibly to direct attention

DIVISION OF THE BRAIN

* Limbic System
* Consists of interconnected structures
* Includes parts of
* Thalamus
* Hypothalamus
* Hippocampus – Memory
* Amygdala – Emotional process
* Septum – Emotion laden learning, pain relief, pain avoidance * Regulates emotion, memory and motivation

DIVISION OF THE BRAIN

* Basal Ganglia

DIVISION OF THE BRAIN

Cerebrum
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Hypothalamus
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