Newton's Second Law Practical Report - Force Essay Example
Newton’s Second Law Practical Report
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MassPrac Report Problem: How does the increase mass affect acceleration and the force of the accelerating object? Purpose: The purpose of the practical is to find how mass affects acceleration and how it affects also the force of the accelerating body. To do this we are going to do the ticker tape experiment where an accelerating body pulls a tape through a consistent 50 dot per second ticker timer. The acceleration body in this experiment will be a small trolley pulled by a string that is pulled by the downfall of different masses which will then tell how mass affects acceleration.
Hypothesis: As the Mass increase so will the force. Variables: Independent Variable – The amount of mass tied at the end of the string Dependent Variable – Force (worked out by acceleration) Controlled Variable – Same amount of air resistant (stay in the same room), same surface of what the trolley is going to accelerate on, same trolley, have the string equally stretched out every time and same tick rate of the ticker timer. The controlled variable will be controlled to create a fair test. Apparatus: * Power Pack * Ticker Timer * Ticker Tape
* Trolley * 1 meter string * Pulley wheel * 50 gram weights x10 * Ruler * Calculator (recommended) * Sticky tape Method: To be done on bench 1. Plug the power pack into a power source. 2. Attach the power pack to the ticker timer, by attaching 1 plug from the black (negative) output of the power pack to one of the power input of the ticker timer and have the other power input of the ticker timer attached to the red output (positive) of the power pack 3. Have the power pad at 2 voltage 4. Switch the power source and the power pack on 5.
Adjust the ticker timer to have roughly around 50 ticks per second (estimate) 6. Switch power pad off 7. Set up the pulley wheel at the opposite end of the table from the ticker timer (preferably 1 meter apart) 8. Thread a ticker tape through the ticker timer (make sure it’s under the carbon paper) and stick the tape onto a trolley. 9. Tie weights onto the end of the string and use the other end of the string to tie to the trolley with the trolley’s angle facing the pulley wheel 10. Start the weight at 10x 50 gram (500 grams) 11. Have the string stretch and on top of the pulley wheel 12.
Switch power pad on and instantly release the weight so it accelerates toward the ground (make sure to catch the trolley as it is pulled toward the edge of the table) 13. Take off the ticker tape from the trolley and out of the ticker timer 14. Record results in a Table shown below after switching off the power pad. Mass (Grams)| | Initial Distance (cm)| Initial Speed (cm/s)| Final Distance (cm)| Final Speed (cm/s)| Acceleration (cm/s^2)| Force(N)| 500| Trial 1| | | | | | | | Trial 2| | | | | | | | Trial 3| | | | | | | | Average| | | | | | | 200| Trial 1| | | | | | | | Trial 2| | | | | | |
| Trial 3| | | | | | | | Average| | | | | | | 100| Trial 1| | | | | | | | Trial 2| | | | | | | | Trial 3| | | | | | | | Average| | | | | | | 50| Trial 1| | | | | | | | Trial 2| | | | | | | | Trial 3| | | | | | | | Average| | | | | | | Record the initial distance travelled in the first 0. 1 seconds by counting the first 5 spaces between each dot starting with the space in between the first and second dot (see example below). 15. Then record the distance of the last 0. 1 seconds covered (0. 4 – 0. 5 second) by measuring the distance between 21st spaces to the 25th. Then work out the initial 0. 1 second and the final 0.
1 second’s speed in seconds by multiplying each distance by 10. Then figure and record their acceleration by taking away the initial speed from the final speed then divided by the change in time which is 0. 5 seconds. Then workout the force by multiplying the mass (1 = 1kg) by acceleration (make sure it’s first converted in m/s^2 so 300 cm/s^2 will become 3 m/s^2, this is because we are calculating acceleration * mass by the standard unit. In this case it would F (N) = 0. 5 (Kg) x acceleration (m/s/s 15. Now repeat steps 7 – 14 two more time for a total of 2 trials then average all results (add all result up divide by 3)
16. Repeat steps 7 – 15 but for step 10 change the amount of mass (200, 100 and 50) every time 3 trials are completed. Results Table Mass (Grams)| | Initial Distance (cm)| Initial Speed (cm/s)| Final Distance (cm)| Final Speed (cm/s)| Acceleration (m/s^2)| Force(N)| 500| Trial 1| 3. 5| 35| 21| 210| 0. 334| 0. 167| | Trial 2| 2. 7| 27| 17. 1| 171| 0. 288| 0. 144| | Trial 3| 2. 2| 22| 12. 7| 127| 0. 214| 0. 107| | Average| 2. 8| 28| 16. 6| 166| 0. 279| 0. 139| 200| Trial 1| 2| 20| 7. 5| 75| 0. 11| 0. 022| | Trial 2| 1. 1| 11| 3. 5| 35| 0. 05| 0. 01| | Trial 3| 2. 3| 23| 10| 100| 0. 2| 0. 04|
| Average| 1. 8| 18| 7| 70| 0. 012| 0. 0002| 100| Trial 1| 0. 8| 8| 3. 2| 32| 0. 0048| 0. 0048| | Trial 2| 0. 75| 7. 5| 1. 9| 19| 0. 0053| 0. 0054| | Trial 3| 0. 85| 8. 5| 1. 75| 175| 0. 0051| 0. 0051| | Average| 0. 8| 8| 2. 283| 22. 83| 0. 051| 0. 0051| 50| Trial 1| 0. 45| 4. 5| 1. 95| 19. 5| 0. 0012| 0. 00006| | Trial 2| 0. 27| 2. 7| 1. 53| 15. 3| 0. 0009| 0. 000045| | Trial 3| 0. 5| 5| 2. 5| 25| 0. 0015| 0. 000075| | Average| 0. 406| 4. 066| 1. 993| 19. 933| 0. 0012| 0. 00006| Force (N) Mass (grams) Analysis: There is a strong general trend that shows as mass increases so do the force.
On the graph there are some minor anomalous results such as trial 3 of mass 200 gram, where the acceleration is 0. 2m/s^2 closer to the 500 gram average then the average of the two other trials for 200 g force. Outlier could be caused by multiple factors such as incorrect or inconsistent method of dropping the weight or the miss positioning of the trolley creating an awkward starting angle and direction. Conclusion: The result supports the hypothesis, that as the mass increases so will the force as there is a general trend that shows when mass is increased so is the force.
Explanation: This all happens because of the formula, Force = Mass X Acceleration. So physically when extra mass is added, the force will increase (e. g. 20 N = 2/m^2 x 10 Kg > 10 N = 2/m^2 x 5 Kg) Theoretically if there were no resistant (e. g air resistance, friction ETC) a down falling body on Earth would accelerate at the rate of 9. 8 m/s^2, this is known as the gravitational acceleration. Theoretically the force of the downfall and acceleration for 500 gram would be 9. 8 m/s^2 x 0. 5 kg = 4. 9 N.
However in this prac as the force is greatly reduced by the resistant forces such as friction between the wheel and the table or the air resistant faced by the trolley and weight, the total amount of force was reduced. Mass(grams)| Average Acceleration (m/s^2)| 500| 0. 279| 200| 0. 012| 100| 0. 0051| 50| 0. 0012| Due to F = A * M; theoretically when the force is deducted, both or either Acceleration or Mass is going to be changed to equal the smaller amount of force, in this case as the Mass was consistently the same (500g for example) what was sacrificed for the drop of force was the acceleration, from the 9.
8m/s/s gravitational acceleration to 0. 334m/s/s acceleration. Thus decreasing the mass will further decrease the force which will be made up by the decrease in acceleration as proven by my results. Evaluation: The results from the test was fairly reliable as most things that would affect the result such surface friction, air density that causes air resistance and et cetera were kept constant. The result is reliable because it had minimal outlier and there was always a constant trend of increased mass = increased force.
However more amount of results/data would have been better. The practical its self however could have been greatly improved for far more accurate result. First and the most important improvement would be having an adjustment that automatically gave the ticker timer a constant 50 dot per second rate instead of manipulating it around and estimating the tick rate. If misjudged an off tick rate would mean misjudging the acceleration because the time interval between each space would not be what we used to calculate as.
For example the speed is different between 10 cm per second then 10 cm per 2 seconds. Another improvement would be extending the run path of the trolley and the drop distance of the mass. This way, a wider range of data would be shown and used to calculate the acceleration and force. The last improvement would be to use a larger variety in weigh (5 kilo grams to 10 grams) because once again more number of results equals a more accurate and in depth trend.
This enquiry could be further extended to test how much does friction play a role in the amount of resistant force. Each mass will be tested on 3 different surfaces (such as concrete, wood and glass). The result then will show how each different surface with different amount of friction affect the total force in the accelerating body by calculating the resulting acceleration multiplies by the mass.a