Nile River Basin Conflict Essay
The Nile River has been the source of life and of conflict in the Nile Basin countries - Nile River Basin Conflict Essay introduction. The late president Mohamed Anwar El-Sadat said that the only thing is going Egypt in another war is Nile river and Egypt`s share in water of Nile. Nile River represents to Egypt the pulse and the spirit for every Egyptian so, it is important to us to keep our right in water of the river from Ethiopia to Egypt. The Nile is the longest river in the world, stretching for 4,130 miles. The Nile River for centuries has been the source of sustaining human life in Egypt and Sudan.
The Nile’s tributaries, lakes, and rivers collect and disperse water in nine African countries before it reaches the Mediterranean Sea. The Egyptians have used military force to ensure their control over the headwaters of the Nile, because the country has no other water source. Sudan, Ethiopia, and Uganda have constructed various river projects to increase their annual water withdrawals, affecting Egyptian control over the Nile. Without the Nile, Egypt would be a scarcely habitable desert, Sudan a parched wilderness.
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The world’s longest river flows for more than 4,000 miles through northeast Africa; it irrigates farmland, provides water for drinking and sanitation and drives hydroelectric power stations. The Nile supplies almost all of Egypt’s fresh water in addition to three quarters of Sudan’s. Both countries claim historic rights over it but neither controls its sources. For thousands of years Egypt has jealously defended its right to use the Nile’s water. The Nile River has been the source of life and of conflict in the Nile Basin for centuries.
The basin’s three million square kilometers cover about 10 percent of the African continent flowing through 10 countries: Ethiopia, Sudan, Egypt, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Eritrea, Kenya and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Approximately 160 million people depend on the Nile River for their livelihoods and about 300 million people live within the 10 basin countries. Within the next 25years, the region’s population is expected to double, adding to the demand for water, which is already exacerbated by the growth of the region’s industries and agriculture.
Furthermore, except for Kenya and Egypt, all of the basin countries are among the world’s 50 poorest nations, making their populations even more vulnerable to famine and disease. Everyone know that Israel is the most dangerous Enemy to Egypt and it try to harm Egypt by any way. And in a conversation with Doctor Mohamed Salman in El-Masry El-Youm and he is a doctor in political science at Cairo University, also he is an expert on the Nile Basin.
And from his conversation we can know that Israel plays a major role in incitement African states, especially Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda to abrogate the previous agreements between them with agricultural expertise and investment funds to build dams and keep the water at home. Also, the Israel foreign minister Avigdor Liberman, who once threatened to destroy the High Dam of Egypt, leads the incitement campaign and in 2009 he headed a delegation representing 10 israeli corporations during a tour of five African countries. So, as we know our real Enemies are we are going in new war? And against who?
Israel or Nile river Basin countries? He also divided the Nile river Basin countries into two groups. Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia are what we call “Hard-Dissatisfied” Countries. And in the other hand we have Rwanda, Burundi, Eriteria and Demucratic Republic of Congo is “Soft-Dissatisfied” countries. The first four countries reject all three main areas of conflict. In the last seven years these countries called for Egypt and Sudan to pay money for water. Doctor Mohamed Salman assured that these are poor countries and the want to play poltical game to pressure Egypt and Sudan while having economic gains.
Although these countries can`t stop the flow of these water, expect in areas of northern Sudan and these countries can`t build dams to stop the water because the human technology can`t build any dams is these areas. He said that these countries can build some canals or small dams and for this Egypt doesn`t refuse. So, after what Dr. Mohamed Salman said about these case and we all know our Enemies and what they want from us. Finally, we know that Egypt has right in this water of the Nile River and we must defend our right by any way if either war or peace.
http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/12730 (news paper)
http://www.helsinki.fi/henvi/teaching/Reports_09/Nile_basin.pdf http://craigeisele.wordpress.com/2010/06/05/will-egypt-go-to-war-over-nile-river-water-rights/ (newspaper)