Normal Development of Speech and Language Essay
The reading assignment for this unit is chapters 3 and 7 in Plante and Beeson - Normal Development of Speech and Language Essay introduction. You might want to look at other sources, as well. This unit will be worth 50 points and is due at 11:30 PM on Sunday, February 10th. Respond to the following questions: 1. In reference to the nature of sound, define: frequency, amplitude (intensity), rarefaction, compression, equilibrium. a. Frequency: The number of cycles per second of a sound wave; perceived as pitch. b. Amplitude (intensity):
A measure o the magnitude or pressure of a sound wave; perceived as loudness. . Compression & Rarefaction: As sound energy travels, molecules bump up against each other, as they bunch together they cause areas of compression and as they spread apart to return to their original location causes areas of rarefaction. d. Equilibrium: Once a wave returns to its normal balance after compressions and rarefactions it gains equilibrium. 2. Compare and contrast frequency and pitch. a. Frequency is the actual number of vibrations per second in a sound, pitch is the way those frequencies sound to us. . In reference to vowel production, define: resonance, formants. a. Resonance: begins within the resonance system which includes the pharynx and the oral and nasal cavity.
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This system modifies sound waves from the larynx to form particular sounds. These formants are where the vowel sounds are at their most distinctive pitch. 4. In reference to consonant production, define: place of production, manner of production, cognates. a. Place of Production: the articulators point of contact for the tongue. b. Manner of Production: The way or manner of sound production, causing a pause in airflow. c. Cognates are consonants that have the same manner and place of production where only voicing is the only indicator of difference. 5. What is the purpose of the International Phonetic Alphabet? a. A system of phonetic notation which acts as a representation of all qualities of speech in oral language. It attempts to use as few symbols for each distinctive sound across all languages.
6. Define: phonemes, morphemes. a. Phonemes: The smallest unit of meaningful sounds of letters in the alphabet in a word. Phonology. b. Morphemes: The smallest unit of language that has meaning, it can be a whole word or a part of a word like a prefix or a suffix. Single words can contain more than one morpheme. Morphology. 7. Explain two theories or approaches to language acquisition. a. Learning theory says that language is learned based on reinforced and encouraged behavior. This theory suggests that children are encouraged to continue developing speech until it has reached perfection. . The Nativist approach says that children are preset by their genetics to learn a language. This theory says that we are all born with the skills to learn all the specific characteristics of a language on our own. 8. Define: linguistic competence, linguistic performance.
a. Linguistic Competence: Is the ability to understand and speak any number of combinations of internalized language. b. Linguistic performance: The behavior of actually producing the language. 9. What is meant by discussing language in terms of form, content, and use? . Form in language refers to phonology, syntax and morphology, content is the actual meaning of the words and use involves the skill and the purpose for the communication. 10. Given the number of ways a message can be perceived, the probability of distortion of a given message is high. Many factors other than the words and their definitions come into play during the course of a conversation. In reference to a verbal conversation being held between two people, discuss the terms paralinguistics, nonlinguistics, and metalinguistics.
Paralanguage refers to the parts of communication that are not necessarily language like loudness (amplitude) or even facial expressions and gestures. Non-language is anything not relating to or consisting of language. Metalinguistics is what describes a system for analyzing language usually through symbols. In terms of a two person conversation the use of body language, gestures and expression as well as tempo and loudness all play a part. The likelihood of miscommunication can be greatly influenced by these and other non-language factors like external and internal noise and a misinterpretation of used language.