2. 1 Objective career success According to Dries, Pepermans, and Carlier (2008) objective career success „[…] is mostly concerned with observable, measurable and verifiable attainments such as pay, promotion and occupational status? (p. 254). Compared to subjective, i. e. perceptual and evaluative criteria they are neutral and not biased in their empirical assessment (Dette, Abele and Renner, 2004). The most widely found measurements in the literature are: monthly salary before taxes, hierarchical status (e. g. , Abele and Spurk, 2009b), and salary progression (Wayne et al. , 1999).
2. Subjective career success Compared to objective career success subjective career success is much broader and refers to all aspects relevant concerning one?s individual career satisfaction (Greenhaus, Parasuraman and Wormley, 1990).
The most common distinction – introduced by Heslin (2003) – is self-referent versus other-referent assessment. I. e. dependent on the comparison standard, i. e. self versus others, subjective success can be conceptualized as self-referent subjective success or as other-referent subjective success (Abele and Wiese, 2008; Dette, Abele and Renner, 2004; Heslin, 2003; Heslin, 2005).
Self-referent is usually measured as career satisfaction or job satisfaction (e.
g. Boudreau, Boswell and Judge, 2001; Bozionelos, 2004; Erdogan, Kraimer and Liden, 2004; Heslin, 2003; Judge et al. , 1995, Ng et al. , 2005; Seibert and Kraimer, 2001). 2. 2. 1. 2 Achievement of personal goals According to Seibert and Kraimer (2001) definition subjective career success refers to an individual?s subjective evaluation of the present achievements compared to his personal goals and expectations.
Thus, career satisfaction measures the extent to which individuals believe their career progress is consistent with their own goals, values and preferences (Erdogan, Kraimer and Liden, 2004; Heslin, 2003; Seibert and Kraimer, 2001). In self-referent subjective success assessment, an individual compares his or her career relative to personal standards and aspirations, i. e. the frame of reference for career success are previously defined personal goals or a self-standard. Concerning values, Super?s (1970) work values inventory is well established.
It consists of five items which are rated according to their individual importance on a five-point scale (1=not important to 5=very important). The scale is one-dimensional (54% explained item variance). The German version (Seifert and Bergmann, 1983) has good internal consistency (a=. 77). Although Bruggemann (1975) argues that satisfaction is not concerned with career success Abele (2002) and Stief (2001) emphasize that personal career goals include satisfaction, i. e. being content with one?s job and career path is success.
This is supported by Brunstein, Schultheiss, and Grässmann (1998), Brunstein (2001), and Locke and Latham (1990) as success and satisfaction highly correlate when achieving one?s goals. Furthermore, the differentiation between extrinsic success (i. e. objective success such as salary) and intrinsic success (i. e. subjective success such as career satisfaction) considers perception and appraisal of satisfaction as an aspect of success (e. g. Judge et al. , 1995; Judge et al. , 1999). Turban and Dougherty (1994) found that income and promotions are associated with perceived career success which included other-referent comparison judgments.
Similarly, Kirchmeyer (1998) reported positive correlations of income and status with other referent subjective success. Thus, in this context one must differentiate between career-advancement goals and private goals (Abele-Brehm and Stief, 2004). While career advancement goals refer to organizational goals which are mostly pre-defined according to the job task (Abele, 2002) personal and private career goals do not exclusively refer to the organizational context but also to career from a more holistic and long-term perspective, i. e. occupational satisfaction and work-life balance (Stief, 2001).
Thus, Abele-Brehm and Stief (2004) assessed the professional/private dichotomy by the three items on a five-point Likert scale: (i) How important is your job in your life? (ii) I like to be absorbed in my job. (iii) Would you like to have children? 6 Drawing upon Greenhaus, Parasuraman, and Wormley?s (1990) definition of subjective career one instrument commonly applied in measuring self-referent career success is the career satisfaction questionnaire developed by Greenhaus, Parasuraman, and Wormley (1990). The career satisfaction scale (a=. 88) assesses the individual career development against an implicit, self-set standard.
The scale comprises five items (see table 1) rated on a five-point) rated on a five-point, reverse-coded Likert scale (1=not at all to 5=very much scale). I am satisfied with the success I have achieved in my career. | I am satisfied with the progress I have made toward meeting my overall career goals. | I am satisfied with the progress I have made toward meeting my goals for income. | I am satisfied with the progress I have made toward meeting my goals for advancement. | I am satisfied with the progress I have made toward meeting my goals for advancement of new skills
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Objective Career Success. (2016, Oct 14). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/objective-career-success/