Organ Failure – One World Essay The two main causes of kidney failure are diabetes and high blood pressure. Diabetes increase the glucose content in our blood and can damage the capillaries in our kidneys causing them to leak protein into the urine. This can damage our kidneys and lead to disease and failure. (Diabetes & Kidney Disease). High blood pressure makes the heart work harder and can damage the blood vessels in our body including in the kidney. This can again lead to leakage and can stop the kidney from functioning.
(National Kidney and Urologic DiseasesInformation Clearinghouse (NKUDIC)).
Cystic diseases High blood pressure Urlogic diseases Diabetes Other Glomerulonephritis 2. 3% 2% 17. 5% 43. 8% 7. 6% 26. 8% Chart showing primary causes of kidney failure. (National Kidney and Urologic DiseasesInformation Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). “Kidney Disease of Diabetes. ). The kidneys core responsibility is to filter blood which then creates urine. They excrete wastes like urea, uric acid and ammonia. They also balance sodium, potassium and water in the blood. Kidneys also aid in the formation of red blood cells and regulate blood volume by controlling the amount of water excreted and also regulate blood pressure.
Urinary System Part 1- The Kidneys). If a person’s kidneys stop functioning, the body will eventually be filled with excess water and waste products. This state is called uremia. The person’s feet and hands may swell and will also feel tired as the body lack clean blood. Untreated uremia could lead to death. (What Happens If My Kidneys Fail Completely? ). (KIDNEYS REQUIRE GLUTATHIONE FOR HEALTHY FUNCTION). Aspect 1 A kidney or renal transplantation may address a kidney failure or a kidney with an end staged kidney disease. (Kidney Transplantation. ” Wikipedia. Wikimedia
Foundation). A kidney transplantation is the surgical transplant of a healthy kidney from a living or a deceased donor into a patient with a dis-functioning kidney(Pickering, Ron 135). To receive a kidney from a donor the recipient will have to go through a blood test. A compatible blood type reduces the chance of an organ rejection. (Hopkins, Johns). The patient will be put on an organ waiting list to receive a kidney. The process starts by inserting a flexible tube called a catheter in your wrist and neck so that heart status and blood pressure can be monitored.
A catheter will also be inserted in the patient’s bladder to remove fluid. The patient will then lie down on the operating table on his/her back. The doctor will then inject a general anesthesia into your body’s blood stream so that the patient will remain asleep during the surgery. A tube attached to a ventilator will be inserted through your mouth and to your lungs. This machine will breathe for the patient while the surgery proceeds. An incision is made into the patient’s lower abdomen only on one side. The donor’s kidney will then be placed into the abdomen.
The left kidney will be attached to the patient’s right side and the right of the donor’s kidney will be attached to the left side depending on which kidney is required. This is done so that the ureter, which pushes the urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder can be easily connected to the bladder. The renal vein and artery of the donor kidney will then be sewn to the iliac artery and vein of the patient. After the stitching is completed, the artery and vein will be checked for a smooth blood flow as well as for any bleeding. The donor’s ureter is then connected to the patients bladder.
The incision in the abdomen will then be sealed with stitches. Dressing or bandages will then be applied. (Hopkins, Johns). Diagram showing the completed kidney transplantation. (Kidney Transplantation. ” Kidney Transplant: Diagram of Procedure). Aspect 2 A transplanted kidney will function exactly like a normal kidney and therefore the patient will no longer require dialysis if was previously going through it. Kidney dialysis is an artificial procedure where waste is removed via diffusion from the blood. This function is to be carried out by our kidneys naturally.
With no longer needing dialysis you will have fewer fluid and diet restrictions, a transplant patient will also feel fitter, have more energy and may also have a longer life than a dialysis patient. (Nordqvist, Christian). However, the patient usually has to wait three to four years before a kidney will be available for transplant. Both the donor and recipient must also have a compatible blood type. If the patient has a blood type with limited compatibility, it may take a longer time to find a kidney. This is also a serious surgical procedure and can cause complications such as bleeding, infection and also damage to other organs. Kidney Transplantation. ” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation). A kidney transplant is also very expensive and not affordable for all. The average price for a kidney transplant is about $262,900 USD. (Transplant Living | Financing A Transplant | Costs). But, in the long term it is still cheaper than dialysis. (Pickering, Ron 134-35). It is possible that the body may reject the transplanted kidney and the patient may require another transplant. Thus the patient will have to take immunosuppressant drugs to lower the risk of the body rejecting the transplanted organ.
These drugs prevent the white blood cells in our body from dividing and multiplying. Fewer white blood cells make body’s immune system weaker and is eventually unable to attack the transplanted organ. These drugs lower a person’s immunity and can make it hard to treat infections. They can lead to uncontrollable bleeding and cancer as the immune system protects the body from certain forms of cancer. Some side effects include fatigue, fever or chills, frequent need to urinate, loss of appetite, increase in hair growth, nausea and bleeding gums.
These side effects usually pass as the body becomes used to the drugs. (Ross, Nancy). Aspect 3 Ethical: In some cases, a kidney transplant may not be ethically correct. When a person has died from a sudden tragic incident, the family would not be in a correct state mentally to make a decision on donating the person’s organs. This decision will have to be made immediately as the persons kidney must still be functioning. (Kidney Transplantation. ” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation). The family of the deceased person may think that the request for the donation may be unethical and insensitive.
In a situation where a person is going to donate his kidney and must choose to donate the kidney to a loved one or a someone who is in a critical or more serious condition. Whichever decision he makes it will be arguable whether he has made an ethical decision. When a person donates a kidney to a complete stranger, it may be considered an ethical decision depending on whether or not the person is genuinely trying to help someone or for publicity and fame. Since a kidney is an organ that is in a pair, a person can survive on only one. (TeensHealth).
A kidney transplant can thus, involve a living donor. If a person donates his kidney to save another person’s life, it may be considered ethical. Economic: The selling of organs is illegal in all countries except Iran. In Iran, people sell organs as if it were a commodity. It is thus the only country to have no waiting list for organs. (Griffin Anne). I think that if all countries adapted the selling and purchase of organs to be legal, there would be fewer waiting lists. Since the kidney is such an organ that someone can survive on only one, people in financial need could donate kidneys.
However, in this system the rich would be able to outbid others for the purchase of organs regardless of how critical or how much a person is in need of the organ. But this, would also mean there would be more organs available for donation, so more people would be cured of kidney failure or diseases. A kidney transplant however is very expensive. It would not be affordable to all. Sometimes health insurances would cover some or most of the cost, but again people unable to afford insurance may not be able to pay for the transplant. (Griffin Anne).
Hospitals will also benefit from kidney transplants as they would be earning large amounts of money, which could be used for development purposes. A certain percentage of the money would be going collected by the government as tax. Based on what I have discussed above, I can conclude that the benefits of my scientific solution do outweigh the limitations. This is an effective and reliable solution to tackle the problem of organ failure. Word Count- 1248. Works Cited “Diabetes & Kidney Disease. ” – AADE. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. Griffin, Anne. Iranian Organ Donation: Kidneys on Demand. ” Ncbi. nlm. nih. gov. N. p. , n. d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. Hopkins, Johns. “Kidney Transplantation Procedure. ” Johns Hopkins Medicine, Based in Baltimore, Maryland. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. “Kidney Transplantation. ” Kidney Transplant: Diagram of Procedure. N. p. , n. d. Web. 08 Apr. 2013. “Kidney Transplantation. ” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Aug. 2013. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. “KIDNEYS REQUIRE GLUTATHIONE FOR HEALTHY FUNCTION. ” KIDNEYS REQUIRE GLUTATHIONE FOR HEALTHY FUNCTION. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Apr. 013. “National Kidney and Urologic DiseasesInformation Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). ” High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. “National Kidney and Urologic DiseasesInformation Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). ” Kidney Disease of Diabetes. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. Nordqvist, Christian. “What Is Dialysis? What Is Kidney Dialysis? ” Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, 31 July 2013. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. Pickering, Ron. “Osmoregulatin and the Treatment of Kidney Failure. ” Complete Biology for IGCSE. N. p. : n. p. , June 2006. 34-35. Print. Ross, Nancy. “Immunosuppressant Drugs. ” Medical Information & Trusted Health Advice: Healthline. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. “TeensHealth. ” Kidney Transplant. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. “Transplant Living | Financing A Transplant | Costs. ” Transplant Living | Financing A Transplant | Costs. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. “Urinary System Part 1- The Kidneys. ” YouTube. YouTube, 21 Dec. 2010. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. “What Happens If My Kidneys Fail Completely? ” What Happens If My Kidneys Fail Completely? N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.
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