Organisational Culture and Motivation Essay
CONTENTS Introduction and Rationale Problem Statement Objectives Introductory Literature Review Proposed Methodology Project Plan Sources of Reading INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE As Desson and Clouthier (2010) state, culture is an important factor in both attracting and retaining desirable employees. The extent to which an employee’s needs and expectations are fulfilled will determine the motivation, job satisfaction and performance levels (Mullins, 2005, p. 499) which would be influenced by culture.
XY Ltd (XY) established in 1944 has become the market leader in sea trade in Sri Lanka at present with the areas shipping, marine services and logistics being its primary activities among others. One of the core values of XY is development of loyal and dedicated staff as it is their belief that at XY People are the most valuable asset. The effect on culture on motivating employees is a key concern of the Human Resource (HR) Manager of XY since he has observed symptoms of reduced employee productivity, high turnover of employees and deterioration of sales in the recent times.
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It is considered that investigating the reasons behind the aforementioned symptoms is significant for the organisation to maintain its position in the industry and for further market growth. Thus, this research pursues to evaluate the impact of organisational culture of XY Ltd on the motivation of the employees. Therefore, the author wishes to devise the research in such a way that the following objectives would be answered through the study. PROBLEM STATEMENT Assessing the impact of organisational culture on employee motivation; Case study on XY Ltd, Sri Lanka.
OBJECTIVES 1. To carry out a comprehensive theoretical analysis over the core concepts of organisational culture, motivation and job satisfaction. 2. To critically analyse the impact of organisational culture on employee motivation at XY Ltd. , Sri Lanka. 3. To identify the current tools of employee motivation used by XY Ltd, Sri Lanka. 4. To provide recommendations to overcome the issues identified and improve employee motivation at XY Ltd, Sri Lanka.
INTRODUCTORY LITERATURE REVIEW Corporate culture has been defined in numerous ways in the literature relating to organisational behaviour as the shared attitudes, views, principles, values, morals, customs and expectations of the employees that has been invented, developed, evolved or discovered in relation to the specific organisation (Chatman and Caldwell, 1991; Kondalkar, 2007, p. 336; O’Reilly, Rowe, Mason, Dickel, Mann and Mockler, 1994; Schein, 1984). Desson and Clouthier (2010, p. ) describe organisational culture as “the personality of the organisation which guides employees on how to think and act on the job”. According to Schein culture is what organisations develop in handling employees and promoting values and beliefs within the organisation (Schein, 2004 as cited in O’Donnell and Boyle, 2008, p. 4). Culture in an organisation will have different functions including facilitating cooperative commitment, promoting stability, shaping behaviour of members and providing members an organisational identity and a boundary (Kondalkar, 2007, p. 36). Hence, corporate culture provides a sense of uniqueness to an organisation making it distinctive as to the way things are being done from other organisations (O’Donnell and Boyle, 2008, p. 4). Motivation is what inspires or causes somebody to behave in a particular way or the reason why they choose a certain course of action (Mullins, 2005, p. 471). According to Maslow (1970, p. 29) human motivation is influenced by some or all the basic needs being satisfied concurrently rather than only one of them. Mullins ( 2005, P. 73) state that an employee’s motivation, job satisfaction and work performance level will be affected by the degree to which the employee’s needs and expectations are being satisfied or fulfilled. Consistent with research conducted, the results have proven that employee motivation finally leading to job satisfaction has not being directed solely by pay but also other factors including work environment, culture, rewards, job design, career advancement opportunities, performance management, recognition and identity in the workplace. Lisboa, 2013, para 9; Nohria, Groysberg and Lee, 2008) Motivated employees are a great asset to the organisation as they will be more productive, creative, efficient and effective in their tasks (Business Burrito, 2009, para 2) Consequently, companies that have formed a culture and strategies to enhance employee motivation will achieve the corporate goals and objectives successfully and will also be able to attract and retain the best and talented employees by building respectful and professional relationships. (Desson and Clouthier, 2010, p. ; Lisboa, 2013, para 4 and 9) Although a substantial amount of studies have been conducted with regard to organisational culture as well as employee motivation, however the extent of the relationship and influence amid commitment and organisational culture are contrasting as some writers such as Deal and Kennedy (1982) and Peters and Waterman (1982) have suggested that culture has a significant effect on commitment whilst authors such as Mathieu and Zajac (1990) and Lahiry (1994) have suggested that the relationship between culture and motivation to be weak (As cited in Lok and Crawford, 1999).
PROPOSED METHODOLOGY The research will be a comparative study of the correlation between the organisational culture, employee motivation and job satisfaction with regard to XY. Research design is the general blueprint of how the research questions will be answered (Brown and Patterson, 2012, p. 98). This research will answer the research objectives via a mixed strategy using both quantitative and qualitative data but however will be more inclined to the qualitative side. This will enable a wide coverage and enrichment of data of the case study. As Greener (2008, p. 6) suggests questionnaires will allow the author to map out a broad view initially and also to provide areas for in depth investigation through interviews. The extent of researcher interference will be moderate as the author is expecting to employ a convenient sample of managerial employees. According to Brown and Patterson sampling process is carried out due to the resource restrictions of cost and time (2012, p. 252). Thus the author will extract a sample of 10 out of the population of 50 managerial employees in the shipping unit. The tentative time for data collection would be in early June as indicated in the project plan.
In assuring the ethical aspect of the study in primary data collection, the author will request for the approval of the senior management in order to carry out the research. Furthermore at the stage of request, the author will clearly explain the purpose of the research, the voluntary nature of participation and how the confidentiality and the anonymity of the participants will be assured to the subjects through a covering letter. In terms of secondary data sources the author will utilize relevant company literature as well as an array of books, journals, web pages and etc.
PROJECT PLAN Task for year 2013 Finalise research objectives Read literature Prepare research proposal Submit Proposal Search and review of literature Prepare literature review chapter Read methodology literature Prepare methodology chapter Prepare primary data collection questions Gather primary data Analyse findings Prepare findings and analysis chapter Update literature review Discuss limitations and future research potential Prepare conclusions chapter Prepare executive summary Prepare personal reflective statement Prepare reference list Prepare contents page and etc.
Proof reading and formatting Submission September February January August March April June May July SOURCES OF READING Brown G. and Patterson N. (2012), Professional project and dissertation, Suffolk: Great Britain. Business Burrito (2009). Retrieved from Why is employee motivation Important. http://www. businessburrito. com/why-is-employee- motivation-important. html Desson, K. , & Clouthier, J. (2010, November). Organizational Culturewhy does it matter? , Paper presented to the Symposium on International Safeguards by International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
Greener S. (2008) Business research methods, Retrieved from http://www. bookboon. com Kondalkar, V. , G. , (2007) Organizational behaviour, New Delhi, India: New Age International Publishers Limited. Lisboa, K. , (2013) Why is employee motivation important? , Retrieved from http://www. life123. com/career-money/career- development/motivating-employees/motivation. shtml Lok, P. , & Crawford, J. , (1999) The Relationship between Commitment and Organizational Culture, Subculture, Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction in Organizational Change and Development.
Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 20(7): 365-373. Maslow, A. , (1970) Motivation and personality (3rd ed. ) New York, USA: Harper and Row Publishers Inc. Mullins, L. J. (2005) Management and organisational behaviour (7th ed. ), England: Pearson Education Ltd Nohria, N. , Groysberg, B. , & Lee, L-E. , (2008) Employee Motivation- A Powerful New Model, Harvard Business Review, 86(7-8): 78-84 O’Donnell, O. , & Boyle, R. , (2008) Understanding and managing organisational culture. Dublin, Ireland O’Reilly, C. A. , Chatman, J. , & Caldwell, D. , F. , (1991) People and Organizational Culture: A Profile Comparison Approach to Assessing Person Organization Fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34(3): 487– 516. Rowe, A. , J. , Mason, R. , O. , Dickel, K. , E. , Mann, R. , B. , & Mockler, R. , J. , (1994) Strategic management: A methodological approach (4th ed. ), New York: Addison-Wesley. Schein, E. , H. , (1984) Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture, Sloan Management Review, 25(2): 3-16.