Organization Behaviour Essay
Abraham Maslow explored a hierarchy of needs, from the most basic physical needs to the most internal needs for selfactualization, and found that individuals respond to motivation that meets their lowest need at a particular point in time. This approach to motivation holds considerable potential for companies willing to apply it to their personnel practices. Another goal setting theory by Dr. Lock explained how specific and difficult goals led to better task performance in general. These two theories have been examined in the perspective of GrameenPhone ltd, the biggest cellular company in Bangladesh.
Some major impacts of the two theories are visible in every aspect of GrameenPhone ltd. The motivation level of employees in GrameenPhone is increased by the various facilities that reflect Maslow’s needs hierarchy and most importantly Lock’s Goal setting theory. Observation of the two theories has been done through personal and phone interviews of GrameenPhone employees. As from theoretical perspective Maslow’s hierarchy of need seems to be strong in Bangladesh Context, where people seems follow visible needs rather than preferring challenges in the workplace in actuality results indicate employees perception toward goal is very strong.
The aim of this observation was to find out the practical impact of the two theories in GrameenPhone and describe in which issues these two theories has failed to make an substantial impact also GrameenPhone’s level of adaptation of Maslow and Lock’s Theory. As Maslow’s theories state that an individual will be motivated to fulfill his first need, which is physiological needs (Ewen, 1998). GrameenPhone seems to be strongly influenced by this part of the theory. The minimum salary for the lowest managerial position in GrameenPhone is 28,000 taka and in the call center starting salary is 10,000 taka.
Maslow’s physiological needs means the biological needs human requires surviving such food, clean water. So it is clear that a GrameenPhone Employee has better probability to satisfy the biological needs as the monthly salary is higher than most of the other companies in Bangladesh. This higher salary policy has proved milestone for GrameenPhone. As it offers an handsome salary at the very starting point of career GrameenPhone has been able to recruit the most highly skilled employees. An high salaried job is much more attractive to the freshly graduated skilled applicants.
This salary philosophy (putting more money to the base salary) has also helped them keeping the skilled productive workforce at their company. Their motivation also increases by the paid training period which GrmeenPhone offers. Most of the companies in Bangladesh keep an unpaid training period on the other hand GrameenPhone’s paid training program are more lucrative to the trainees and it motivates them to response to the training opportunity eagerly. Locks first principal of Goal setting theory states Clarity goals which clarify what an employee should do (Miner, 2002).
Through the Training program GrameenPhone mould employees in the shape of their culture and task goals. employees start realizing what they need to do and start working immediately. It is because, whenever a clear and specific goal is assigned to an individual, rather than being abstract and irrational, the individuals are more likely to be encouraged because of the simplicity and they are ought to complete their tasks accordingly. As indicated by Shams an intern “As an intern I am having hands-on experience which I believe is going to help in the future.
I am looking forward to work longer for Grameenphone and enjoy the magic of closeness” GrameenPhone is seen to follow and imply this very influensive method that is the goal setting theory. One of the principal of goal setting theory is Challenge( Miner, 2002). Employees in internship program seem to face various practical assignments. Supervisors identify those motivating highly challenged employees to offer a training position after completing the internship. Results also indicate that challenging goals are more favorable by employees because they find it more motivate and convenient for them.
It is because, whenever they realize the fact that they are to be well received for their hard work, it secures the future for them according to their opinion and thus they become less confused and uncertain and more confident and hard working. As indicated by Raihan from finance “My career with Grameenphone has been both challenging and interesting. At First I started working on this Project (X); which was to design something totally new, first time in Bangladesh” Maslow’s safety need is emphasized in GrameenPhone ltd. They have included so much to make employees more protected, secure and stable in their workplace.
GrameenPhone ltd is building a pension fund for it employees. It also invests in a provident fund. 10% of the salary is paid on a monthly basis into the fund. Employees are also entitled and covered by health and medical insurance. This also applies to family member. GrameenPhone also provides monthly education grants for children under age of 21 to all employees. The grant is fixed for each child. This type of financial security has made GrameenPhone employees more comfortable at their jobs. As our results suggest that the medical insurance is very useful to every employee.
They are mainly using it for their sick parents of elderly persons in the family. But a result indicates that GrameenPhone employees also suffer from the tension of downsizing each year. GrameenPhone annually arranges a 360 degree evaluation which sometimes put employees in the state of insecurity of loosing job if their contribution was low throughout the year. This type of mental pressure keeps the employees insecure and if GrameenPhone takes a closer look at this they might see employee productivity also lower as employees are in constant fear of getting fired .
The workplace has also taken into account to give the employees best safety at the place. Sophisticated software and computerized security system to keep the whole place from the safety of fire, theft, robbery and any kind of unwanted event. Another issue in within the GrameenPhone employees is child care service. Around half of the employees are woman and among them around two third are married and with little children. Over half of them missed office because of some child issues. So GrameenPhone would make this female employees more motivated if they plan to provide a child care service in the office space.
Another principle of Goal setting theory is Commitment (Miner, 2002). The employees of GrameenPhone are also seen to be receiving many commitments by the company itslef and by their boss. This has proven to be very motivate because whenever they are promised some benefits and facilities or in one word, rewards for their hard work, they start working hard more and more to oblige by the company and to earn more rewards. Maslow’s social need indicates love, affection, and a sense of belongingness in one’s relationships with other persons (Ewen, 1998).
Examples of these needs are work groups, teamwork, and company good relationship with co-workers. Humans are inherently social and friendly creatures, and to deprive this need for affection will prohibit the individual from obtaining a higher plateau on Maslow’s hierarchy. Friendships are beneficial to humans at home and in the workplace, but some employers do not realize the importance of this association. We are all aware that humans form meaningful relationships outside of the workplace, but the value of establishing njoyable relations within the workplace is often underestimated. Research has shown that promoting social interaction among employees will “increase morale and productivity. “In our observation we have found that GrameenPhone requires each employee to attend in the “discussion time” of the team work to strengthen interpersonal relationships. Also a new employee need to attend the orientation and after that he/she stays under supervision of two or three experienced colleague and a senior supervisor during the training period to alleviate the left out feeling of a new comer.
As Bhuyian from finance said ” In Grameenphone, it’s more like being in one big happy family, a family that sets world class standards and knows how to turn the vision into reality” These procedures also help a new employee to learn the organization culture, key policy, rules etc. New employee orientation has proven to solidify the employee relationship with the organization. As noted from Bhuiyan from finance “it made me feel welcome and more comfortable during my primary days at GrameenPhone”. Feedback and Task Complexity of Goal setting theory is visible in the discussion time.
Mangers set goals for the employees; they first of all look at the response by and feedback of the employees, rather than being irrational and be blind sighted. As the feedback of their current way of motivation that is the goal setting theory, turns out to be more positive, managers start to imply this method. Maslow defined esteem needs as the level of fulfillment a person feels in the workplace such as respect, prestige, recognition, need for self-esteem, personal sense of competence and mastery in opinion, humans are egocentric, and everyone likes to be praised (Ewen, 1998). This is part of this need fulfillment.
Results states at GrameenPhone employees like to be appreciated and recognized for job . This motivates them to continue working hard for the company. But observation seems to portray that sometimes praise is lacking, which really discourages an employee. Though at GrameenPhone a compulsory appraisal dialogue is held annually between the individual employee and his/her superior . Still most of the employee doesn’t think it’s a 100% fair process . If the GrameenPhone authority is able to make the process fairer they will be benefit from this management as it is easy to measure the contribution of each employee throughout the year.
The last level of Maslow’s hierarchy, the pinnacle of achievement, is the plateau of self-actualization. the need to to grow and use one’s abilities to the fullest and most creative extent. “What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization… According to our observation in GrameenPhone each year around 2% employee reaches this phase where they feel their potential is truly paid off (employees who get promoted at the top level management).
Maslow created his hierarchy of needs from an individualistic perspective, the needs and drives of those in individualistic societies tend to be more self centered than those in collectivist societies, focusing on improvement of the self, with self actualization being the apex of self improvement (Ewen, 1998). Clemmer and McNeil suggest that Maslow misses the point because he left people’s spiritual dimension out of the picture. They say that humans look for meaning in their lives and meaning transcends animalistic drives.
Example- In GrameenPhone some employees reported failing to attend five time daily prayer in the busy workdays, when they need to stay on their desk whole day and night. This creates one kind of dissatisfaction among them. Herzbergs two factor is visible in this issue. Though some GrameenPhone employees are dissatisfied on this issue, it will not motivate them if the issue is resolved. Finally it is worth pointing out that though most of the aspects of GrameenPhone strongly involves Maslow’s theory and Lock theory issues such job empowerment is low at GrameenPhone ltd.
Some Top level manager seems be demotivated in this fact. Reference: Anika Shams. Intern, Grameenphone ltd. [interview} 3/2 Segun Bagicha, Dhaka-1000. 22 July 2011. Ewen, R. B. (1998). Introduction to Theories and Personalities, 5th Edition. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS Miner, J. B. (2002). Organizational Behaviour, Oxford University Press Ruhullulah Raihan, Finance, GrameenPhone ltd. [interview] GrameenPhone ltd. 22 July 2011. Tanzeem Bhiyan, Technology, GrameenPhone ltd. [interview] GrameenPhone ltd. 22 July 2011.