Title : Osmosis in Quail’s Eggs Research Question What is the effect of different concentrations of sodium Chloride (NaCl) on the mass of the de-shelled quail’s eggs? Introduction Osmosis is an example of passive transport. Osmosis is defined as the movement of water molecules, down its concentration gradient, from an area of high water concentration (low solute concentration) to an area of lower water concentration (high solute concentration) through a selectively permeable membrane. Osmosis doesn’t need energy in form of ATP since it is passive transport and move down the concentration gradient.
Cells respond to their external environment by shrinking, swelling, or staying the same based on the movement of water molecule. The eggshell is made of calcium carbonate. When calcium carbonate is in contact with hydrochloric acid, a chemical reaction will takes place and carbon dioxide is released. This results in production of gas bubbles on the surface of the egg. Hypothesis The higher the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl), the lower the mass change of the quail’s egg after being immersed in the sodium chloride solution for 24 hours.
In low concentration of sodium chloride solution, the solution will be hypotonic to the egg because the concentration of solute in sodium chloride is lower than the concentration of solute in water. Water molecules move from hypotonic to hypertonic solution. Thus, water diffuses in the egg membrane by osmosis and the mass of egg increases. In high concentration of sodium chloride solution, the solution will be hypertonic to the egg because the concentration of solute in sodium chloride is higher than the concentration of solute in water.
Water molecules move from hypotonic to hypertonic solution. Thus, water diffuses out from the egg membrane by osmosis and the mass of egg decrease. Variables Table 1 : Types of Variable Types of Variables| Methods of Controlling| Independent Variable : The concentration of sodium chloride solution| The concentration of sodium chloride is varied by 0%, 5%, 15%, 30% and 45% for each beaker. | Dependant Variable :The change in mass of quail’s egg | The egg are weighed using an electronic balance to weigh its mass after being immersed in sodium chloride for 24 hours. | Controlled Variable : i.
The type of egg usedii- The time taken to immersed the eggs in sodium chlorideiii- The volume of sodium chloride used for each beakeriv- The concentration of hydrochloric acid used v- The volume of hydrochloric acid used| i- The egg used throughout the experiment is quail egg. Other types of egg cannot be used as the size differs. ii- The time taken to immerse the eggs is fixed at 24 hours iii- The volume of sodium chloride used is fix at 70 ml for each beaker containing the egg iv- The concentration of hydrochloric acid used to de-shell the egg is fixed to 2. M v- The volume of hydrochloric acid used to de-shell the eggs is fixed at 350 ml| Materials and Apparatus Table 2 : List of Apparatus No. | Apparatus| Quantity| Size| 1| Beaker| 1| 750 cm3| 2| Beaker| 5| 250 cm3| 3| Measuring Cylinder | 1| 100 cm3| 4| Petri Dish| 1| -| 5| Spatula| 2| -| 6| Glass Rod| 2| -| 7| Electronic Balance| 1| -| Table 3 : List of Materials No| Materials| Quantity| Size| 1| Quail’s egg| 5| -| 2| Sodium chloride (5%, 15%, 30%, 45%)| 70 ml (each)| -| 3| Hydrochloric acid| 350 ml| -| 4 | Distilled water| 70 ml| -| 5| Paper towel| 1 roll| -| Methodology A.
Preparation of de-shelled eggs 1. Place 5 quail eggs in a 1000 cm3 beaker. 2. Pour 350 ml of hydrochloric acid into the beaker until the egg is completely immersed in the acid. At the same time, push the eggs down to ensure it will not float using spatula and glass rods. This is to ensure maximum reaction between eggs and the acid. 3. Wait for a while until all the shell is removed and make sure there is no cell patches left on the egg. 4. Take out the eggs carefully from the beaker and transfer it onto a petri dish. Make sure there is no skin contact with the acid while transferring the eggs. 5.
Rinse the eggs carefully with distilled water and dry it by gently patting it with a paper towel. B. Investigation 6. When the egg is totally dry, place them on the electronic balance and record the masses in a suitable table. 7. Put each egg in a 250 ml beaker. 8. Pour in 70 ml of sodium chloride solution in each beaker to cover the eggs. Record the concentration of sodium chloride used for each beaker. 9. Leave the eggs for at least 24 hours. 10. Pour the sodium chloride solution off the eggs. 11. Dry the eggs carefully using a paper towel. 12. Place the eggs on the balance and record the mass of each egg in the table. 3. Compare the results for the different concentrations of sodium chloride. Data Collection Qualitative data : 1. During the process of de-shelling the egg using hydrochloric acid, white foam with green residue is formed. 2. Effervescence is produced when the hydrochloric is in contact with the egg shell. 3. Air bubbles appear on the surface of the egg shell. 4. The egg membrane appear after the process of de-shell is over. 5. Observations after the experiment : Table 4 : Observation on egg shell after 24 hours Concentration Of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) solution| Observation| 0%| The egg expand, became firm and elastic. 5%| The egg expand slightly, became less firm and less elastic. | 15%| The egg slightly change in size, became a bit firm and less elastic| 30%| The egg slightly shrivelled, soft and less firm| 45%| The egg shrivelled, and less firm| 6. From 0% to 45%, the transparency of the eggs became more opaque. Quantitative data : Table 5 : Initial Mass of Quail Eggs Concentration of sodium chloride solution| Mass of Quail Eggs (± 0. 01g)| | Group 1| Group 2| Group 3| Group 4| 0%| 11. 36| 9. 99| 10. 79| 9. 34| 5%| 11. 39| 9. 66| 10. 22| 10. 71| 15%| 10. 88| 11. 12| 10. 45| 10. 22| 30%| 10. 81| 9. 2| 10. 02| 10. 47| 45%| 10. 53| 10. 87| 9. 56| 10. 81| Table 6 : Final Mass of Quail Eggs Concentration of sodium chloride solution| Mass of Quail Eggs (± 0. 005 g)| | Group 1| Group 2| Group 3| Group 4| 0%| 16. 88| 17. 32| 16. 74| 12. 28| 5%| 13. 77| 11. 95| 12. 37| 12. 89| 15%| 11. 86| 12. 21| 11. 42| 10. 70| 30%| 9. 34| 7. 73| 9. 04| 8. 30| 45%| 8. 47| 10. 62| 8. 03| 8. 29| Data Processing Concentration of sodium chloride solution| Change in mass of Quail Eggs (± 0. 01 g)| Average mass, g| Standard deviation| | Group 1| Group 2| Group 3| Group 4| | | 0%| 5. 52| 7. 33| 5. 95| 2. 94| 5. 44| 1. 3| 5%| 2. 38| 2. 29| 2. 15| 2. 18| 2. 25| 0. 11| 15%| 0. 98| 1. 09| 0. 97| 0. 48| 0. 88| 0. 27| 30%| -1. 47| -1. 49| -0. 98| -2. 17| -1. 53| 0. 49| 45%| -2. 06| -0. 25| -1. 53| -2. 52| -1. 59| 0. 98| *This is a pool data and my group is group 2. A. The mean for the change in mass of the egg: Mean, x = xn Mean, x = 5. 52+7. 33+5. 95+2. 944 = 21. 744 = 5. 44 C. The standard deviation : Standard deviation, ? = trial 1 - average? + trial 2 - average? + trial 3 - average? +trial 1 - average? n-1 Standard deviation, ? = 5. 52 - 5. 44? + 7. 33 - 5. 44? + 5. 95 - 5. 44? +2. 94 - 5. 44? 3 = 1. 83
Data Presentation Discussion : Eggshell is made of calcium carbonate. When come in contact with hydrochloric acid, a chemical reaction occurs and carbon dioxide is released resulting in production of gas bubbles on the surface of the egg. By putting the egg in the acid, it will be de-shelled and the membrane can be seen and osmosis can occur. Based on the graph, we can see that between 16% until 20% concentration of sodium chloride, the solution is isotonic to the egg as there is zero change in mass of the egg shell. It means that the movement of water into and out of the cell by osmosis is the same.
In low concentration of sodium hydroxide solution, that is 0%, 5% and 15% the sodium chloride is hypotonic to the egg as it is above the x-axis of the graph. Sodium chloride has low solute concentration while the egg has high solute concentration. Thus, water will diffuse into the egg membrane by osmosis, down the concentration gradient from a solution of low solute concentration to a solution with high solute concentration resulting in the increasing mass of the egg. In high concentration of sodium hydroxide solution, that is 30% and 45% the sodium chloride is hypertonic to the egg as the point lies below the x-axis.
Sodium chloride has high concentration while the egg has low solute concentration. Thus, water will diffuse out from the egg membrane by osmosis, down the concentration gradient from a solution of low solute concentration to a solution with high solute concentration resulting in the decreasing mass of the egg. Conclusion : The change in mass of quail’s egg in high concentration, which is 30% and 45% is lower compared to the change in mass of quail’s egg in low concentration of sodium chloride which is 0%, 5% and 15%.
Therefore, the higher the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl), the lower the mass change of the quail’s egg after being immersed in the sodium chloride solution for 24 hours. The hypothesis is accepted. Evaluation Limitation| Suggestion| Time interval between placing the first egg and the last egg into the sodium chloride solution is too long causing the first egg to undergo osmosis longer than the last egg. | Place all the eggs simultaneously into the beakers containing sodium choride solution. Vibration of air while measuring the mass of egg using electronic balance. | Measure the mass of egg using the electronic balance in a closed area and switch off the fan. | Egg is not dried properly before weighing. | Dry the eggs properly and tapping it slowly with paper towel before weighing. | Some of the eggs float halfway causing the egg to not react completely since the surface was not in contact with the hydrochloric acid. | Make sure the eggs were immersed in the hydrochloric acid all the time using spatula or glass rod until it is de-shelled completely. Parallax error when measuring the volume of sodium chloride using a measuring cylinder| Make sure the eye is perpendicular to the meniscus when taking the measurement. | References * Walpole, B, Merson-Davies, A & Dann, L 2011, Biology for the IB diploma, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. * 2 http://www. kidzone. ws/science/egg. htm -------------------------------------------- [ 2 ]. Walpole, B, Merson-Davies, A & Dann, L 2011, Biology for the IB diploma, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. [ 3 ]. http://www. kidzone. ws/science/egg. htm