| 33444 – 9 910 – 12 1212 – 14 1414 – 15 15 – 16 16 – 17 1717 – 18 181818 – 19 19 – 20 20202122| Introduction English is the most widespread language in the world and is more widely spoken and written than any other language. It began as a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria.
Following the economic, political, military, scientific, cultural, and colonial influence of Great Britain and the United Kingdom from the 18th century, via the British Empire, and of the United States since the mid-20th century. Nowadays, it is important to learn English because it prepares and allows the students to accommodate in the real world. As we all know, English contains part of speech and tenses; tenses such as simple past tense, simple present tense and future tense, to allow a person to create a sentence. Parts of Speech Table This is a summary of the 8 parts of speech
Part of speech| function or “job”| example words| example sentences| Verb| action or state| (to) be, have, do, like, work, sing, can, must| EnglishClub. com is a web site. I like Google. | Noun| thing or person| pen, dog, work, music, town, London, teacher, John| This is my dog. He lives in my house. We live in London. | Adjective| describes a noun| a/an, the, 2, some, good, big, red, well, interesting| I have two dogs. My dogs are big. I like big dogs. | Adverb| describes a verb, adjective or adverb| quickly, silently, well, badly, very, really| My dog eats quickly. When he is very hungry, he eats really quickly. Pronoun| replaces a noun| I, you, he, she, some| Tara is Indian. She is beautiful. | Preposition| links a noun to another word| to, at, after, on, but| We went to school on Monday. | Conjunction| joins clauses or sentences or words| and, but, when| I like dogs and I like cats. I like cats and dogs. I like dogs but I don’t like cats. | Interjection| short exclamation, sometimes inserted into a sentence| oh! , ouch! , hi! , well| Ouch! That hurts! Hi! How are you? Well, I don’t know. | Part of Speech Part of speech is a traditional term for the categories into which words are classified according to their functions in sentences.
In other words, every single word can be categorized into one of eight word groups, or parts of speech. Part of speech contains: 1. Noun 2. Adjective 3. Verb 4. Adverb 5. Pronoun 6. Preposition 7. Conjunction 8. Interjection 1. Nouns A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, idea, or quality: Robert Frost wrote poems. Ann lives in Boston. Work brings satisfaction. People like admiration. A noun is used as the subject, as any kind of object, and as the predicate nominative (noun complement). The man walked down the street. (Man is the subject, and street is the object of the preposition down. ) The cow is a domestic animal. Cow is the subject, and animal is the predicate nominative. ) Nouns answer these questions: Who? What? 2. 1. Types of Noun 2. 2. 1. Proper 2. 2. 2. Common 2. 2. 3. Collective 2. 2. 4. Abstract 2. 2. 5. Plural 2. 2. 6. Concrete 2. 2. 7. Possessive 2. 2. 8. Compound 2. 2. 9. Singular 2. 2. 10. Noun Clause 2. 2. 11. Gender Nouns 2. 2. 12. Predicate Nouns 2. 2. 13. Noun Phrase 2. 2. 14. Irregular Nouns 1. 1. 1 Proper Noun A Proper noun always begins with a capital letter, such as John or London. For Example John| London| Paris| January| September| Monday| Friday| River Thames| Mexican| Buddhism| Def Leppard| New Orleans|
Frank Sinatra| New York| St. Christopher| Mormons| Republican| United Nations| 1. 1. 2 Common Noun A Common noun always begins with a small letter (unless it is at the beginning of a sentence). A common or general word. An example of the common noun – A girl and her dog played in the park. For Example cat| dog| Boy| girl| park| Table| chair| cake| Chocolate| 1. 1. 3 Collective Noun Collective nouns are the words used to define a group of people, animals or inanimate things. For example, in the phrase a “flock of geese” or a ” pride of lions”, flock and pride are collective nouns. There are many collective nouns that refer to animals.
A group of people can be described as an army, company or audience. For Example A company of actors| A swarm of bees| A panel of experts| A host of angels| A deck of cards| A banner of knights| A colony of ants| A herd of cows| A coven of witches| 1. 1. 4 Abstract Noun An abstract noun means the opposite to a concrete noun. If you cannot taste, touch, hear, smell or see something it is an abstract noun. Examples of abstract nouns are honesty, courage and loyalty. For Example Beauty| Annoyance| Education | Pleasure| Skill| Courage| Revenge| Loyalty| Nature| Communication| Love| Hate| Thought| Creativity | Loneliness|
Fairness| Freedom | Wisdom| 1. 1. 5 Plural Noun A Plural noun means more than one item. Examples of plural nouns are beds, boys, girls, books and cats. They are created by adding a letter ‘s’ to the end of a word or by adding ‘es’ such as in churches, boxes or witches. For Example Cats| Boys| Bats| Books| Chairs| Tables| Churches| Boxes| Witches| 1. 1. 6 Concrete Noun A Concrete noun is classified by its ability to reach the senses. Concrete nouns are something physical. If you can taste, touch, hear, smell or see an item the word is a concrete noun. Examples of concrete nouns are water, air or pizza. For Example Bread| Juice | Hyacinth|
Fish | Perfume| Cake| Car| Water| Pizza| Music| Pie| Toast| 1. 1. 7 Possessive Noun A possessive noun shows ownership (having or owning). Possessive nouns are formed by adding an apostrophe and “s” or only an apostrophe. Examples are John’s car or the car belongs to John it is not Mark’s. Mark is Johns’ brother. The possessive noun is also used to refer to restaurants, churches, shops and colleges combined with the job title or name of the owner. Examples are the doctor’s, the dentist’s, the grocer’s or St. Saviour’s or Smith’s Common expressions such as Sunday’s newspaper or the water’s edge also use this type of noun For Example
Mark’s| John’s| Johns’ brother| St. Saviour’s| St Jude’s| St. Paul’s| doctor’s| dentist’s| grocer’s| baker’s| newsagent’s| chemist’s| 1. 1. 8 Compound Noun Compound nouns are formed by joining two simple nouns together. Examples are boyfriend (made from boy and friend) or girlfriend. A hyphen might also be used to form a compound noun such as dining-table. A different meaning can be created when using two separate nouns such as in fish tank or mineral water. For Example blackboard| blackboard| blue-green| breakwater| brother-in-law | browbeat| freeze-dry| grasshopper| highlight| Iceland| love-in| New Year’s Day | ver-ripe| seafood| tumbledown| twelve-year-old| undercut| underworld| wallpaper| without| witchcraft | 1. 1. 9 Singular Noun A Singular noun means one item only. Examples of singular nouns are bed, boy, girl, book, house and cat. For Example actor| bee| expert| angel| card| knight| ant| cow| witch| bed| book| house| boy| girl| baby| cat| bird| desk| 1. 1. 10 Noun Clause A noun clause does the work of a noun in a sentence or phrase. It is a group of words containing a subject and a finite verb of its own. Some Rules: noun clauses usually begin with words like how, why, what, where, when, who, that, which, whose, whether, etc.
Also words like whoever, whenever, whatever and wherever There are therefore just three basic types of noun clauses: * those that start with a question word such as where, how, who, when and why * those that start with whether, whatever etc or if * those that start with that. Examples of the noun clause: * Where does John live? * If John buys a Ferrari * That Mr. Smith is a good teacher * You really do not want to know what Mrs. Smith gives her husband for dinner (what “Mrs. Smith gives her husband for dinner” is the noun clause) 1. 1. 11 Gender Noun
Gender has the same relation to nouns that sex has to individuals, but while there are only two sexes, there are four genders: * masculine – the masculine gender denotes all those of the male kind * feminine – the feminine gender all those of the female kind * neuter – the neuter gender denotes inanimate things or whatever is without life * common – common gender is applied to animate beings, the sex of which for the time being is indeterminable, such as fish, mouse, bird, etc Sometimes things which are without life as we conceive it and which, properly speaking, belong to the neuter type of noun, are, by a figure of speech called
Personification, changed into either the masculine or feminine, as, for instance, we say of the sun, He is rising; of the moon, She is setting. 1. 1. 12 Predicate Noun A predicate noun is used to predicate a description or identification of the subject. In simple terms IT is an alternate word for the subject of the sentence For Example : * Mrs. Smith will be governor ( Mrs. Smith is the subject and the predicate noun is governor ) * I am a botanist ( the subject is I, and the predicate noun is candidate ) * Mr. Smith is a teacher ( Mr.
Smith is the subject and teacher is the predicate noun) All of the above examples clarify how an alternative word is used for the subject of the sentence 1. 1. 13 Noun Phrase A group of words used to form a basic name when it is: * impractical to employ a single noun word * when a single noun would have too broad a concept if used as a basic name for example, ‘machine’ and ‘board’ Examples of the noun phrase : * The Chairman of the Board of Governors * The new vitamin packed high calcium low fat breakfast cereal * The crimson, ermine trimmed, velvet gown with gold trimmings was worn by Anne Boleyn at her coronation . 1. 14 Irregular Noun When irregular nouns change from their singular form to become plural, their spelling changes, in a different way to regular plural words, where cat, dog and book are made plural by adding a letter ‘s’ – cats, dogs, books etc. But it would be incorrect English to add an ‘s’ or ‘es’ to ‘irregular’ words. The word ‘mouse’ changes to mice to indicate the plural The word ‘cactus’ changes to cacti The word scissors does not change at all to indicate the plural It would be incorrect English to add an ‘s’ or ‘es’ to these ‘irregular’ words. The word ‘diagnosis’ changes to diagnoses
Hippopotamus – hippopotami Louse – lice For Example When Irregular Nouns become Plural| Singular| Plural| Singular| Plural| Analysis| analyses| appendix | appendices| Bison| bison| cactus| cacti| Calf| calves | child| children| Elf| elves| foot| feet| Goose| geese| knife| knives| Leaf| leaves| life| lives| Loaf| loaves| man| men| Mouse| mice| person| people| Scissors| scissors| tooth| teeth| 2. Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. She, herself, it, and this are examples of pronouns. There are three types of pronoun 3. 2. Types of Pronoun 3. 3. 15. Personal 3. 3. 16. Relative 3. 3. 17.
Adjective 2. 1. 1. Personal Personal Pronouns are so called because they are used instead of the names of persons, places and things. The Personal Pronouns are I, Thou, He, She, and It, with their plurals, We, Ye or You and They. In colloquial language and ordinary writing Thou, Thine and Thee are seldom used, except by the Society of Friends or the Amish community. The Plural form You is used for both the nominative and objective singular in the second person and Yours is generally used in the possessive in place of Thine. a. I is the pronoun of the first person because it represents the person speaking b.
Thou is the pronoun of the second person because it represents the person spoken to c. He, She, It are the pronouns of the third person because they represent the persons or things of whom we are speaking Personal Pronouns are so called because they are used instead of the names of persons, places and things. Like nouns, the Personal Pronouns have number, gender and case. Types of Personal Pronouns The gender of the first and second person is obvious, as they represent the person or persons speaking and those who are addressed. * Personal (First Person – Male or Female)
Singular| Plural| I| We| Mine| Ours| Me| Us| * Personal (Second Person – Male or Female) Singular| Plural| Thou| You| Thine| Yours| Thee| You| * Personal (Third Person – Male) Singular| Plural| He| They| His| Theirs| Him| Them| * Personal (Third Person – Female) Singular| Plural| She| They| Hers| Theirs| Her| Them| * Personal (Third Person – Neuter) Singular| Plural| I| We| Mine| Ours| Me| Us| 2. 1. 2 Relative The Relative Pronouns are so called because they relate to some word or phrase going before; as, “The boy who told the truth;” “He has done well, which gives me great pleasure. The Relative Pronouns are who, which, that and what. i. Who is applied to persons only; as, “The man who was here. ” ii. Which is applied to the lower animals and things without life; as, “The horse which I sold. ” “The hat which I bought. ” iii. That is applied to both persons and things; as, “The friend that helps. ” “The bird that sings. ” “The knife that cuts. ” iv. What is a compound relative, including both the antecedent and the relative and is equivalent to that which; as, “I did what he desired,” i. e. “I did that which he desired. Here who and which are not only used in place of other words, but who refers immediately to boy, and which to the circumstance of his having done well. i. Antecedent: The word or clause to which a relative pronoun refers is called the Antecedent ii. Relative pronouns have the singular and plural alike iii. Who is either masculine or feminine; which and that are masculine, feminine or neuter; what as a relative pronoun is always neuter iv. That and what are not inflected. Who and which are therefore declined: Singular & Plural| Singular & Plural| Who| Which| Whose| Whose| Whom| Which| 2. 1. 3 Adjective
Adjective Pronouns share the nature of adjectives and pronouns and are subdivided as follows: i. Demonstrative Adjective Pronouns Demonstrative Adjective Pronouns directly point out the person or object. They are this, that with their plurals these, those, and yon, same and selfsame. ii. Distributive Adjective Pronouns Distributive Adjective Pronouns are used distributive. They are each, every, either, neither. iii. Indefinite Adjective Pronouns Indefinite Adjective Pronouns are used more or less indefinitely. They are any, all, few, some, several, one, other, another, none. iv. Possessive Adjective Pronouns
Possessive Adjective Pronouns denote possession. They are my, thy, his, her, its, our, your, their. N. B. The possessive adjective pronouns differ from the possessive case of the personal pronouns in that the latter can stand alone while the former cannot. “Who owns that book? ” “It is mine. ” You cannot say “it is my,” the word book must be repeated 2. Verbs A verb is a word used to express action, being, or state of being: Jose painted a picture. The law still exists. That woman is a banker. A verb may be composed of several words (the main verb preceded by one or more auxiliary or helping verbs), called a verb phrase:
This book should have been sent to the storeroom. 3. 1. Types of Verb 3. 2. 2. Regular Verb 3. 2. 3. Irregular Verb 3. 2. 4. Transitive Verb 3. 2. 5. Intransitive Verb 3. 1. 1. Regular Verb A verb is said to be regular when it forms the past tense by adding ‘ed’ to the present or ‘d’ if the verb ends in ‘e’. 3. 1. 2. Irregular Verb A verb is said to be irregular when its past tense does not end in ‘ed’ 3. 1. 3. Transitive Verb A transitive verb is one the action of which passes over to or affects some object; as “I struck the table. ” Here the action of striking affected the object table, hence struck is a transitive verb. . 1. 4. Intransitive Verb An intransitive verb is one in which the action remains with the subject; as “I walk,” “I sit” or “I run”. Many intransitive verbs, however, can be used transitively; thus, “I walk the horse;” walk is here transitive. 3. 2. Verbs are inflected by number, person, tense and mood Number and person as applied to the verb really belong to the subject; they are used with the verb to denote whether the assertion is made regarding one or more than one and whether it is made in reference to the person speaking, the person spoken to or the person or thing spoken about. . 3. 6. Verbs inflected by tense In their tenses verbs follow the divisions of time. They have present tense, past tense and future tense with their variations to express the exact time of action as to an event happening, having happened or yet to happen. 3. 3. 7. Verbs inflected by mood There are four simple moods — the Infinitive, the Indicative, the Imperative and the Subjunctive. The Mood of a verb denotes the mode or manner in which it is used. Thus if it is used in its widest sense without reference to person or number, time or place, it is in the Infinitive Mood; as “To run. Here we are not told who does the running, when it is done, where it is done or anything about it. 3. 3. 8. The Indicative Mood When a verb is used to indicate or declare or ask a simple question or make any direct statement, it is in the Indicative Mood. “The boy loves his book. ” Here a direct statement is made concerning the boy. “Have you a pin? ” Here a simple question is asked which calls for an answer. 3. 3. 9. The Imperative Mood When the verb is used to express a command or entreaty it is in the Imperative Mood as, “Go away. ” “Give me a penny. ” 3. 3. 10.
The Subjunctive Mood When the verb is used to express doubt, supposition or uncertainty or when some future action depends upon a contingency, it is in the subjunctive mood; as, “If I come, he shall remain. ” 3. 3. 11. The Participles Verbs have two participles, the present or imperfect, sometimes called the active ending in ing and the past or perfect, often called the passive, ending in ed or d. The infinitive expresses the sense of the verb in a substantive form, the participles in an adjective form; as “To rise early is healthful. ” “An early rising man. ” “The newly risen sun. The participle in ing is frequently used as a substantive and consequently is equivalent to an infinitive; thus, “To rise early is healthful” and “Rising early is healthful” are the same. Present Indicative, Past Indicative and Past Participle The principal parts of a verb are the Present Indicative, Past Indicative and Past Participle as in: Parts of Verbs| Present Indicative| Past Indicative| Past Participle| Love| Loved| Loved| 3. Adjectives An adjective is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. An adjective may be a single word, a phrase, or a clause: We saw beautiful valleys and rugged mountains. single words) The rug on the floor is blue. (adjective phrase) The man who spoke is a teacher. (adjective clause) Adjectives answer these questions: What kind? Which one(s)? How many (or how much)? Whose? 4. 3. List of Descriptive Adjectives Descriptive adjectives can be divided into different categories such as colors, sizes, sound, taste, touch, shapes, qualities, time, personality and ages. The following lists provide a few examples of descriptive adjectives in each of their categories: * Colors are adjectives Colors – examples: black, blue, white, green, red * Sizes
Sizes – examples: big, small, large, thin, thick * Shapes Shapes- examples: triangular, round, square, circular * Qualities Qualities- examples: good, bad, mediocre * Personality Traits Personality – examples: happy, sad, angry, depressed * Time related Time – examples: Yearly , monthly, annually * Age related Ages – examples: new, young, old, brand-new, second-hand * Sound related Sound related – examples: loud, noisy, quiet, silent * Touch related Touch related – examples: slippery, sticky * Taste related Taste related – examples: juicy, sweet 4. 4. Types of Adjective
An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun, that is, shows or points out some distinguishing mark or feature of the noun; as, A black dog. Adjectives have three forms called degrees of comparison: i. the positive ii. the comparative iii. the superlative 4. 5. 12. The Positive Adjective The positive adjective is the simple form of the adjective without expressing increase or diminution of the original quality: nice. Adjectives expressive of properties or circumstances which cannot be increased have only the positive form; a circular road; the chief end; an extreme measure. . 5. 13. Comparative Adjectives The comparative adjective is that form of the adjective which expresses increase or diminution of the quality: nicer. Examples are older than or more expensive than or bigger than or faster than or taller than etc. Adjectives are compared in two ways, either by adding er to the positive to form the comparative and est to the positive to form the superlative. The following adjectives are exceptions to this rule (irregular): i. bad becomes worse or worst ii. good becomes better or best.
Comparative adjectives are also formed by prefixing more to the positive for the comparative and most to the positive for the superlative; handsome, handsomer, handsomest or handsome, more handsome, most handsome 4. 5. 14. Superlative Adjectives The superlative adjective is that form which expresses the greatest increase or diminution of the quality: nicest. An adjective is in the superlative form when it expresses a comparison between one and a number of individuals taken separately; “John is the richest man in Boston. “. An adjective is also in the positive form when it does not express comparison; as, “A rich man. Adjectives of two or more syllables are generally compared by prefixing more and most. Example: Paris is the most romantic city in the world. 4. 5. 15. Predicate Adjective A Predicate Adjective is an adjective that functions as a predicate, such as “John is handsome”, handsome being the Predicate Adjective. 4. Adverbs An adverb is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. In some cases adverbs may modify other parts of speech – a preposition or a conjunction – or other sentence elements – a verbal or occasionally a substantive: She sings beautifully. beautifully modifies the verb sings. ) He is a very great orator. (very modifies the adjective great. ) She smiled rather sadly. (rather modifies the adverb sadly). By working faithfully, she won success. (faithfully modifies the gerund working. ) The little boy, smiling happily, ran to meet his father. (happily modifies the participle smiling. ) She has learned to write clearly. (clearly modifies the infinitive to write. ) He was almost under the tree. (almost modifies the preposition under. ) She came just before I left. (Just modifies the conjunction before. ) Nearly all of them were lost. nearly modifies the indefinite pronoun all. ) The newly rich were not invited. (Newly modifies the noun equivalent rich. ) An adverb may be a single word, a phrase, or a clause: He crept stealthily. (single words) The stranger came into the room. (adverbial phrase) Robert left when I came. (adverbial clause) Adverbs answer these questions: How? When? Where? Why? Under what condition? To what extent or degree? Some more adverbs as follows List of Adverbs| accidentally afterwards almost always angrily annually anxiously awkwardly badly blindly boastfully boldly bravely briefly rightly busily calmly carefully carelessly cautiously cheerfully clearly correctly courageously crossly cruelly daily defiantly deliberately doubtfully easily elegantly enormously enthusiastically equally even eventually exactly faithfully far fast fatally fiercely fondly foolishly fortunately frantically gently| gladly gracefully greedily happily hastily honestly hourly hungrily innocently inquisitively irritably joyously justly kindly lazily less loosely loudly madly merrily monthly more mortally mysteriously nearly neatly nervously never noisily not obediently obnoxiously ften only painfully perfectly politely poorly powerfully promptly punctually quickly quietly rapidly rarely really recklessly regularly| reluctantly repeatedly rightfully roughly rudely sadly safely seldom selfishly seriously shakily sharply shrilly shyly silently sleepily slowly smoothly softly solemnly sometimes soon speedily stealthily sternly successfully suddenly suspiciously swiftly tenderly tensely thoughtfully tightly tomorrow too truthfully unexpectedly very victoriously violently vivaciously warmly weakly wearily well wildly yearly yesterday| 5. Prepositions
A preposition shows the relations between its object and some other word in the sentence: We walked through the woods. (through shows the nature of the relations between woods, its object, and walked, the verb. ) 6. 5. List of Common English Prepositions ‘The following words are a list of prepositions which are commonly used in the English language: List of Prepositions| about above after against along among around at before behind below beneath| beside between beyond by down during for from in into like near| of off on over through to toward under until with within without | 6. 6. Ending a sentence with a preposition t’s still considered improper in some circumstances to end a sentence with a preposition. This ‘rule’ was based on trying to conform English grammar structure with the rules of Latin grammar. However, these Latin rules cannot be correctly applied to the English language – it would sound unnatural. An example of this is in the following sentence: “Where are you from? ” would change to “From where are you? ” if this ‘rule’ was applied. It is also easy to mistake a preposition for what is actually a part of a verb. Examples of this can be found in the verbs ‘to put up’ and ‘to put up with’.
Each of these examples of verbs have completely different meanings and the words that look like prepositions (up and with) are actually a part of each of the verbs. Regardless of this old ‘rule’ ending a sentence with a preposition is OK! 6. 7. Prepositional Phrase? A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective or an adverb. 6. Conjunctions A conjunction connects words or groups of words: Bob and Linda are here. (and connects the two subjects, Bob and Linda. She came, but she did not stay. (but connects the two independent clauses, she came and she did not stay. ) In form a conjunction may be a single word or a group of words: She came while you were away. (a single word connecting clauses) The teachers as well as the students had a good time. (a group of words used as a conjunction) Although conjunctions have many classifications, it is sufficient for our purpose to note only three general classes: coordinating, subordinating, and correlative. (relative adverbs used as conjunctions are also called conjunctive adverbs or adverbial conjunctions. 7. 8. List of Common English Conjunctions ‘The following words are a list of Conjunctions which are commonly used in the English language: List of Conjunctions| Coordinating | Others| And Or But Nor So For Yet| After Although As As If As Long As Because Before Even If Even Though Once Since| So That Though Till Unless Until What When Whenever Wherever Whether While| 7. 9. 16. Correlative Conjunctions The Correlative type always appear in pairs. Examples of the correlative type include the words “either… or,” “neither… nor,”, “not only… but also” and “whether… or”.
Correlative conjunctions are used to link equivalent sentence elements. 7. 9. 17. Coordinating Conjunctions Examples of co-ordinating conjunctions include the words “and,” “but,” “or,” “nor,” “for,” “so,” and “yet”. There are only seven coordinating types in the English language. Co-ordinating types are used to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. 7. 9. 18. Subordinating Conjunctions Examples of subordinating include the words “after,” “although,” “as,” “because,” “before,” “how,” “if,” “once,” “since,” “than,” “that,” “though,” “till,” “until,” “when,” “where,” “whether,” and “while”.
Subordinating words are used to indicate the nature of the relationship among the independent clause and the dependent clause. Subordinators are usually a single word, but there are also a number of multi-word subordinators that function like a single subordinating conjunction example: ‘even though’. Both coordinating and subordinating can join clauses 7. Interjections An interjection is a familiar word that has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence and that commands attention or expresses strong feeling: ah, gosh, hurrah, oh, ouch, shh, whew, etc.
Note that an interjection is not the same thing as an exclamation. An exclamation is an outburst—an emphatic statement, not a part of speech. Though in fact an exclamation may consist of or contain an interjection, there’s no necessary tie between the two. “O Henrietta Tittle, your hair is like peanut brittle” contains an interjection (the poetical “O”), but it isn’t an exclamation; drop dead! Is an exclamation, but it contains only an imperative verb and an adjective. Strong interjections are followed by an exclamation point. When used in sentences, mild interjections are set off by commas. 9. List of Common English Interjections ‘The following words are a list of Interjections which are commonly used in the English language: List of Interjections| adios ah aha ahem ahoy alack alas all hail alleluia aloha amen attaboy aw ay bah begorra behold bejesus bingo| bleep boo bravo bye cheerio cheers ciao crikey cripes dear doh duh eh encore eureka fie gee gee whiz gesundheit| goodness gosh great hah ha-ha hail hallelujah heigh-ho hello hem hey hey presto hi hip hmm ho ho hum hot dog howdy| hoy huh humph hurray hush indeed jeepers creepers jeez lo and behold man my word now ooh oops ouch phew phooey ip-pip| pooh pshaw rats righto scat shoo shoot so so long there touche tush tut tut-tut ugh uh-huh uh-oh uh-uh viva| voila wahoo well what whoa whoopee whoops whoosh wow yay yes yikes yippee yo yoicks yoo-hoo yuk yummy zap| Conclusion As a conclusion, part of speech is essential when we are speaking English. Part of speech is used to arrange the words in our sentences and teaches us about nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. Bibliography http://grammar. about. com/od/pq/g/partsspeechterm. htm http://www. examples-help. org. uk/parts-of-speech/index. htm