TYPES OF RESEARCH The different characteristics of research: Research May be Applied or Basic The purpose of applied research is to solve an immediate, practical problem. Basic Research (Pure) adds to the existing body of knowledge; doesn’t necessarily provide results of immediate, practical use. Research May be Obtrusive or Non-Obtrusive Obtrusive research – where the researcher introduces conditions that influence participants. Where the researcher manipulates the environment. Non-obtrusive research – where researcher avoids influencing subjects in any way and tries to be as inconspicuous as possible.
Four Main Types of Research Historical research – describes what was-mostly non- obtrusive Descriptive research – describes what is-mostly non- obtrusive Correlation research – makes comparisons, looking for trends or tendencies Experimental research – describes what will be – mostly obtrusive 3 Historical Research A systematic process of searching for information and fact to describe analyze or interpret the past Value-can provide prospective for decision making about current problems -issues are often better understood if we understand the historical perspective Sources-must have good backed sources to protect from riticism -most common sources are past records Descriptive Research Describes, interprets, and clarifies what in the present -often done with surveys -may be done by observation or an observational instrument Developmental Research is one common type of descriptive research which involves the study of changes in behavior over a period of time 4 Correlation Research The purpose is to find relationships between two or more variable so to: – Better understand the conditions and events that we encounter (what goes with what) – To predict future conditions and events.
– Correlations do not show cause and effect
Coefficients of Correlation -range from –1 to 1 -the farther the number is away from 0 the higher the correlation -a negative correlation suggest an inverse effect -a 1 or -1 shows a perfect correlation -a correlation of 0 indicates no relationship Experimental Research An experiment is a research situation where at least one independent variable, called the experimental variable, is deliberately manipulated or varied by the researcher. Variable –element or characteristic being studied Parameter-element that remains unchanged (age, number of subjects) 5 Evaluation of Sources Primary sources-original or first hand account of event r experience, persons involved, documents, records or relics Secondary sources-an account that is at least once removed -persons not involved directly with an event but has close knowledge (parents, relatives) -newspaper External Criticism -evaluates the validity of the document -who, when, where it was produced -is the document genuine, authentic -status of author (primary or secondary? ) Internal Criticism-evaluates the meaning, accuracy and trustworthiness of the content (comes after external criticism) • Both external and internal criticism are important to establish validity. 6 Sampling Terms and Procedures
Population-inclusive group defined by researcher Sample-representative subset of population -should contain essential elements of population Random Sampling-process of sampling which assures that any subject in the population has an equal probability of being in the sample Systematic counting-uses list to choose every nth person from the population Stratified Random-used when researcher believes the population has distinct subgroups Ex: population has 45% men, then we make sure sample is 45% men 7 Variables and Limitations Independent Variable-experimental or treatment variable (it is the cause) what we are studying -it is what we are manipulating in our study Dependent Variable-is what is measured to assess the effects of the independent variable -it is thought to be dependant on the independent variable Delimitations-choices the experimenter makes to affect a workable research problem Ex: You delimit the number of subjects or the time frame Limitations-the conditions or influences that either cannot be controlled or are the results of the delimitations imposed -limitations are beyond the control of the researcher and may place restrictions on the study 8 Experimental Research Designs
Pretest-Posttest Design Pretest treatment posttest Posttest Only Control Group Design-weak due to lack of control sampling through a pretest (1) Treatment posttest (2) posttest (control group) Pretest-Posttest-Control Group Design (1) Pretest treatment posttest (2) Pretest posttest (control group) Quasi-Experimental Design (1) Pretest group treatment posttest (2) Pretest group posttest(control group) *Grouping is performed based on pretest* Solomon 4-Group Design-used to check effects of posttest (1) Pretest treatment posttest 2) Pretest posttest (control group) (3) treatment posttest (4) posttest (control group) 9 Validity -Does it measure what it is suppose to measure -Wasted time if not valid -Involves: 1. The extent to which the results can be accurately interpreted 2. The extent to which the results can be generalized to population Internal Validity -basic minimum control, measurement, analysis, and procedures necessary to make the results interpretable -is the study itself setup and run correctly External Validity-extent to which the study relates to the population concerned with comparability and translatability 10 Seven Threats to Validity 1. History- events that take place between the pretest and post test that may be a partial or total explanation for the differences-control group will help 2. Maturation-refers to physiological and biological development that takes place over time. 3. Regression-occurs due to the imperfect relationship between the pretest and the posttest scores. Ex: lack of sleep, illness 4. Instrumentation-changes occurring in the instruments and observation procedures 5. Pre-testing-effect pretest has on subsequent tests- may serve as learning instrument . Mortality-loss of subjects during an experiment 7. Selection-the procedure used to choose subject who participate 11 Subjects and Subjects Rights • Right to privacy or non-participation • Do not ask unnecessary information • Should get adults consent or parents of minors consent • Right to remain anonymous-researchers should explain study focus on group data • Right to expect experimental responsibility o Researcher will be ethical and sensitive to dignity o Subjects must be notified of research or debriefed immediately after • Informed consent-a fair explanation of procedures to follow
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