Every living thing in this world is somehow related or connected to each other. The only difference is the way they do things, to keep themselves alive. Each year since we have grown, and we have been taught many different processes that plants and anything in the world has and how it works. A process that is familiar is called pollination. Meaning pollen is transferred in plants; it enables fertilization and sexual reproduction (Russel et al, 2010).
Pollen grains contain the male sperm, which are known as the gametes (sperm) to where the female gamest are carried in the carpel, which in this case the gymnosperms directly apply the pollen to the ovule itself (Russel et al, 2010). Pollination is a very important step in the history of reproduction of flowering plants, due that it enables the production of offspring that genetically vary. To be pollinated, pollen must be moved from a stamen to the stigma. When the pollen is transferred to that same plant’s stigma, that’s when its called self- pollination.
When pollen from a plant’s stamen is transferred to a different plant’s stigma, its called cross- pollination (Russel et al, 2010). Pollination happens is several ways; plants rely on animals or the wind to pollinate them. When animals such as bees pollinate plants, its accidental. Another way plants are pollinated is by the wind. The wind picks up the pollen from one plant and blows it onto another one. The plants that are pollinated by the wind often have very long stamens and pistils. Since they do not need to attract animal pollinators (Russel et al, 2010).
Wind pollination is also referred to as abiotic pollination, meaning that pollination is mediated without the involvement of other organisms. Not many plants are pollinated without animal assistance. This form of pollination is predominant in grasses; most are conifers, and many deciduous trees. Hydrophily is pollination by water and occurs only in aquatic plants, which release their pollen directly into the surrounding water. About 80% of all pant pollination is biotic (Russel et al, 2010). Gymnosperms always show that their pollination method is by wind.
Another process of pollination is called the biotic pollination also known as pollination that requires pollinators, for example bees. Pollination by insects, often occur on plants that showed coloured petals and a strong scent to attract bees (Russel et al, 2010). Insect pollinators such as bees, have been observed to engage in flower constancy, which means that they are more likely to transfer pollen to other conspecific plants ( Brosseau and Mallory, 2009, pollination). Pollination can be accomplished by cross-pollination or by self-pollination.
Cross-pollination occurs when pollen is delivered to a flower from a different plant. Plants adapted to outcross or cross-pollinate often have taller stamens than carpels or use other mechanisms to ensure the spread of pollen to other plants’ flower (Russel et al, 2010). Self-pollination occurs when pollen from one flower pollinates the same flower or other flowers of the same individual. Self-pollination may include autogamy, where pollen moves to the female part of the same flower or geitonogamy, when pollen is transferred to another flower from the same plant.
Plants adapted to self-fertilize often have similar stamen and carpel lengths. Plants that can pollinate themselves and produce viable offspring are called self-fertile. Plants that cannot fertilize themselves are called self-sterile, a condition which mandates cross pollination for the production of offspring (Russel et al, 2010). Self-pollination is known as cleistogamy, it occurs before the flower opens. The pollen is released from the anther within the flower or the pollen on the anther grows a tube down the style to the ovules. It is a type of sexual breeding, in contrast to asexual systems such as apomixes.
Some of these flowers never open; these flowers by necessity are self-compatible or self-fertile plants. Bees help flowers make seeds; they usually look for pollen and sweet juice. Every flower has pollen, although some flowers do not have the sweet juice. The bee’s first job is to move pollen from the anther of one flower to the female stigma of another flower. An anther is the male part of a flower that has pollen grains on it. A stigma is the female part of a flower that receives the pollen. In other words, when a bee gets pollen from a flower the pollen sticks to the bee.
Then the bee goes to another flower and the pollen falls onto the stigma. Most flowers use this pollen to make seeds. Other flowers use their own pollen to make seeds (Brosseau and Mallory, 2009, pollination). Each tiny pollen grain grows into a long tube. These are called pollen tubes. They grow until they come to the ovary. The ovary is the section of a flower where the pollen tubes meet. Now a male gamete from the pollen tube joins the egg from the ovary and a seed is born (Russel et al, 2010). (Figure 1. Flowering Pollination) http://www. google. ca/images? =pollination&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=og&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi&biw=1280&bih=599 Plants are like any other living organism on this earth. They go through a process or a cycle to stay alive and able to feed. Pollination plays a very important role in plant life, without it plants would not be able to stay alive and therefore affect our living, because they contribute to our oxygen and everything in our atmosphere. The Function of pollination is to continue the life cycle of a plant or tree. If the plant does not have water and proper sunlight, pollination cannot grow the tree or plant alone.