Senior Exit Project Research Paper Plastination is a process of preserving organic material - Plastination introduction. A specimen can be anything from a full human body to a tiny piece of an animal organ, and they are known as “plastinates’. There are typically four steps in the normal plastination process. Step one would be fixation. Step two would be dehydration. Step three is forced impregnation in vacuum. The last step is hardening. Water and lipid tissue are put in place by curable polymers. Curable polymers used by plastination include silicone, epoxy and polyester-co-polymer.
Fixation frequently utilizing a formaldehyde based solution, serves two functions. Dissection of the specimen to show anatomical elements can be time consuming. Formaldehyde or other preserving solutions help prevent decomposition of the tissues. They may also infer a degree of rigidity. This can be beneficial in maintaining the shape or arrangement of a specimen. A stomach might be inflated or a leg bent at the knee for example. After any necessary dissections take place, the specimen is then placed in a bath of acetone.
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Under freezing conditions, the acetone draws out all the water and replaces it inside the cells. In the third step, the specimen is then placed in a bath of liquid polymer, such as silicone rubber, polyester or epoxy resin. By creating a vacuum, the acetone is made to boil at a low temperature. As the acetone vaporizes and leaves the cells, it draws the liquid polymer in behind it, leaving a cell filled with liquid plastic. The plastic must then be cured with gas, heat, or ultraviolet light, in order to harden it.
Once plastinated, the specimens and bodies are further manipulated and positioned prior to curing (hardening) of the polymer chains. In 2007 The Bishop of Manchester launched a campaign to coincide with the opening of Body Worlds in that city, accusing the exhibitors of being “body snatchers” and “robbing the NHS”, arguing that donation of bodies for plastination would deprive the Nation Health Service of organs for transplant. The site included a government petition calling for “a review of the law regarding the policies and practices of touring shows involving corpses”.
Consent is a primary focus of discussion. Paul Harris, director of North Carolina’s State Board of Funeral Services, has stated, “Somebody at some level of government ought to be able to look at a death certificate, a statement from an embalmer, donation documents. That’s a reasonable standard to apply. ” Assemblywoman Fiona Ma said, “These displays do have important educational benefits, but using bodies against a person’s will is unacceptable”. Human bodies being shown across the world in the Body Worlds exhibit is okay, but it’s only acceptable when there is consent prior to the specimens death involved.
The benefits of plastination are that it opens the world to what is truly inside of the body, as well as what is in several other specimens. This can potentially revolutionize our knowledge of what the anatomy of the body really is. It is a complete benefit to university’s, medical schools, and community colleges all over the nation, and even all over the world. Plastinated specimens can be repeatedly handled by students. Because of the durability and safety of plastinated specimens, they may be utilized in a much broader range of educational settings.
For example, specimens of normal lung and lung tissue from smokers and victims of smoking-related cancer have been used in a number of elementary, middle and high schools across the state to promote the prevention of smoking. Knowing what is inside of the body can tell us a lot of helpful insight on how to cure, treat and understand how diseases spread and other body functions. Frankly there is nothing that is on the market in the world that can surpass what an actual human body can teach you. However without the legal consent of the plastinants, it brings up several valid problems.
One being that it’s not legal to present a cadaver to the public without some sort of consent. Two, there are hundreds if not thousands of people that are plastinated in the world (especially those who are in the body world exhibit) that help create revenue for the Body World owners, it brings up controversy because the people who don’t voluntarily donate their bodies (inmates, homeless, etc) never receive any sort of revenue at all. In 2007, New York State attorneys general office begun an investigation on
The Premier Exhibition, and where and who they get their bodies from. After the investigation was over, Premier Bodies Exhibition had to publicly admit that did not know whether or not the bodies they were using were once tortured or executed Chinese prisoners, and were forced to refund 50,000 dollars to visitors that viewed the Premier Body Exhibition. Also Premier Body Exhibition are not allowed to present bodies that do not have official documented papers specifying whether or not the body was donated to science or just seek from a prison camp.
All whole body plastinates exhibited in Body Worlds come from donors who gave informed consent via a unique body donation program. Only adults over eighteen years of age can sign up to the program. The pre-natal and infant specimens in the exhibitions are obtained from morphological collections previously held by universities and medical institutions. Bodies from deceased persons who did not give consent – such as deceased hospital patients from Kyrgyzstan and executed prisoners from China– have never been used in a Body Worlds exhibition.
In January 2004, the German news magazine Der Spiegel reported that von Hagens had acquired corpses of executed prisoners in China; von Hagens countered that he did not know the origin of the bodies, and returned seven disputed cadavers to China. In 2004, von Hagens obtained an injunction against Der Spiegel for making the claims. Body Worlds exhibitions have controversy and debate focused on various issues. Religious groups, including representatives of the Catholic Church and some Jewish rabbis have objected to the display of human remains, stating that it is inconsistent with reverence towards the human body.
In May 2008, Archbishop David Motiuk spoke out about the Body Worlds Exhibit that was coming in June of that same year, saying “That he was concerned the display would undermine the idea of the dignity of the human person. ”… “When looking at the bodies, it’s very important that they won’t be objectified,” said Archbishop Richard Smith. “These are bodies of people. These are bodies that lived, that loved … It’s not just an object to be gawked at as an object of curiosity, but to be honoured. The Archbishop Smith also told Metro, a local paper, “It’s hard reconciling a principal of our faith with a scientific practice that preserves the body indefinitely. It’s not clear to me what is done with the bodies when this exhibit is done long term. Whether or not the body is returned to the family for a proper burial. ” For the most part, catholics do not believe in this. However Christian teaching holds that the human body is more than a disposable “suitcase” for the soul, but is itself a sacred thing that retains its dignity even in death.
Christians believe that at the end of time, the earthly bodies of each of the saved will be raised in a “glorified” form similar to that of Christ after the Resurrection. The Catholic Church teaches that the use of the human body for medical research is permissible under certain circumstances but that it must be treated with the utmost respect. (“Lifesitenews” 1). Recently Israel’s Supreme Court ordered the closing Bodies: The Exhibition—which controversially uses plastinated human bodies—by Oct. 9.
Activists welcomed the decision, but wished the court had ordered an immediate closure, and done so sooner. They closed it just [a] few days before its original ending date. It should say clearly: This exhibition is an abomination,” he was quoted by NTD Television as saying. “These bodies have to be buried respectfully and eliminate this terrible phenomenon, trading people, trading bodies as we can see here. ” Said Michael Ben Ari, a member of the Israeli Parliament, during the protest that the court acted too late. Moshe Feiglin, a human rights activist in.
Even though plastination has a bright future in the medical and educational world with its perks and benefits, until itMonday, October 29, 2012s done legally, parading cadavers around the world illegally is a crime and needs to be stopped. Without the proof of papers and legal documents stating that the cadaver has donated their body to science the Body Worlds Exhibit and the Premier Exhibition exhibit should be closed down immediately. Imagine if your dead loved one was plastered all across the world with out even considering what you think or what the deceased loved one wanted.