Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Backgrounds Rationale Mild forgetfulness and memory delays are often part of the normal aging process. Older individuals simply need more time to learn a new fact or to remember an old one. We all have occasional difficulty remembering a word or someone’s name; however, those with Alzheimer’s disease will find these symptoms progressing in frequency and severity. Everyone, from time to time will forget where they placed their car keys; an individual with Alzheimer’s disease may not remember the purpose of the keys.
Its starts in memory problems that interfere with daily living and steadily worsen and gradually aggravates with having difficulty managing money, driving, orientation, shopping, following instructions, abstract thinking and finding the right words. There may also be other problems, such as poor judgment, emotional instability and apathy. Most people whose lives have been touched by Alzheimer’s disease provide support to their loved ones. The major risk factors for AD areag e and family history.
Other possible risk factors include a serious head injury and lower levels of education.
Scientists are also studying additional factors to see if they may cause the disease. Some of these factors include: • Genetic (Inherited) Factors: Scientists believe that genetic factors may be involved in more than half of the cases ofAD. For example, a protein called apolipoprotein E (ApoE) may be important. Everyone has ApoE, which helps carry cholesterol in the blood. However, the function of ApoE in the brain is less understood. The ApoE gene has three forms. One form seems to protect a person from AD, and another form seems to make a person more likely to develop the disease.
Scientists still need to learn a lot more about ApoE and its role in AD. • Environmental Factors: Scientists have found aluminum, zinc, and other metals in the brain tissue of people with AD. They are studying these metals to see if they cause AD or if they build up in the brain as a result of the disease. • Viruses: Some scientists think that a virus may cause AD. They are studying viruses that might cause the changes seen in the brain tissue of people with AD. AD probably is not caused by any one factor. It is more likely to be several factors that act differently in each person.
For example, genetic factors alone may not be enough to cause the disease. Other risk factors may combine with a person’s genetic makeup to increase her or his chance of developing the disease. Alzheimer’s disease is often called a family disease, because the chronic stress of watching a loved one slowly decline affects everyone. Comprehensive treatment must therefore address the needs of the entire family. This includes emotional support, counseling, and educational programs about Alzheimer’s disease for individuals and family members as they strive to provide a safe and comfortable environment at home.
Through training, caregivers can learn how to control unwanted behaviors, improve communication, and keep the person with Alzheimer’s safe. Research has shown that caregivers benefit from training and support groups and that participation in these groups allows caregivers to care for their loved one at home longer. The resources listed at the end of this fact sheet can help you find classes and support groups. The role of the caregiver changes over time as the needs of the person with AD change. The following suggestions can help caregivers prepare for the future.
Conceptual Framework/ Theoretical Framework Most of the social and economic burden of Alzheimer’s disease is attributable to its consequences in terms of disability. The main pathway leads from pathology to impairments, functional limitations and disability. Pathologies are expressed by impairments in specific cognitive processes. Functional limitations are limitations in generic cognitive tasks such as remembering a list of words or orientating oneself in time and space. They are responsible for disability in activities of daily living.
Predisposing risk factors as well as introduced intra-individual and extra-individual factors speed up or slow down the main pathway. This can help in understanding the functional consequences of dementia, for better assessment and management. Statement of the problem Major problem In this study, different people would also have different answers but limiting it to the students of San Beda College, this question is the most appropriate, “How would a Bedan Student approach a possible Alzheimer’s Disease of a loved one? ” Specific problem
In the goal to obtain answers, as well as to understand the different factors that affects it and some solutions to the problem. This study aims to answer the following questions: 1. Who are the most people affected by Alzheimer’s Disease? 2. What are the primary needs of the family experiencing Alzheimer’s Disease? 3. What are the Bedan’s emotional points of view about Alzheimer’s Disease? Assumptions Forgetfulness maybe just a common thing when it comes to people with old age but gradual increase of this event can be a result due to brain cell damage caused by Alzheimer’s disease.
From failing to recall things, it gets worse to not remembering the people, “the important ones”, family. Filipino culture unifies family with its embedded values of respect, love and trust. When things get worse, helpfulness and understanding prevails and whatever happens blood will always be thick. Caring for parents when they get old or when they get sick is just one of the common deeds. Hypothesis For care giving families with Filipino families, help depends on not allowing themselves to feel stigmatized by the problem, ashamed to admit that a member has Alzheimer’s, and perhaps afraid that their time will come.
Children in the household may be especially vulnerable to stigmatization and not want friends to visit. Even if the diagnosis is open, some families have difficulty accepting such a major change in their lives. For instance, in families with traditional gender-role attitudes, the wife whose husband has Alzheimer’s will probably have to handle the family finances and other decision making, and her husband may become resentful; or the husband who has never cooked may have to take over in the kitchen, much to his ill wife’s dismay, and perhaps his own, as well.
A good relationship between caregiver and recipient, one that maintains the recipient’s self-respect and dignity, is the key to success in role change and care giving. A good relationship, however, depends much on communication, and communication between caregiver and Alzheimer’s patient can be difficult. But it is possible, and caregivers who find effective ways to communicate increase the quality of both their own and their charges’ lives. Importance of the Study There can be considerable racial and cultural differences in how families deal with Alzheimer’s disease.
In fulfillment to making everything a lot less grueling, understanding the disease and knowing how to deal with it is most beneficial. But the most substance is the knowledge to find if not perfect, the best way to cope with life’s adversity. This study may also help other studies to identify the different approaches in dealing with Alzheimer’s disease. Scope and Delimitations of the Study Out of the three sections in fourth year Financial Management students of San Beda College, students will be used as a sample in conducting the survey.
This study limits its coverage on the fourth year Financial Management students only. Its main purpose is to identify the possible problems that they may encounter and to propose possible approaches regarding this problem. This will consider some aspect of students’ personal opinion that has an impact on the study such as their Medical background. Each of the respondents is given same questionnaires to answer, focusing on the current fourth year students of the present school year, 2010-2011. Definition of Terms • Alzheimer’s disease It is degenerative brain disorder that develops in mid- to late adulthood.
It results in a progressive and irreversible decline in memory and a deterioration of various other cognitive abilities. It affects the mental abilities including memory, language, and cognition. Progressively it leads to dementia and death. The disease is characterized by the destruction of nerve cells and neural connections in the cerebral cortex of the brain and by a significant loss of brain mass. • Filipino Family Culture Filipinos highly value the presence of their families more than anything. Regardless of the liberal influence they have gotten from the west, the family remained the basic unit of their society.
This trait clearly shows among Filipinos abroad who suffer homesickness and tough work just to support their families back home in the Philippines. In a traditional Filipino family, the father is considered the head and the provider of the family while the mother takes responsibility of the domestic needs and in charge of the emotional growth and values formation of the children. They both perform different tasks and being remarked separately by the children. Children see their mothers soft and calm, while they regard their fathers as strong and the most eminent figure in the family.
Because of this remarkable closeness, parents sometimes have difficulties letting go of their children and thus results to having them stay for as long as they want. For this somehow explains why grandparents are commonly seen living with their children in the Philippines. Unlike the way people grow old in the west where they are provided with outside homes and care giving, Filipino elderly enjoy their remaining lives inside their houses with their children and grandchildren looking after them. Another trait Filipinos made themselves exceptional from others is their strong respect for elders.
Children are taught from birth how to say “po” and “opo” to teach them as early as possible how to properly respect their elders. These words are used to show respect to people of older level. Even adults will be criticized for not using these words when speaking with their parents or people older than them. Inside the family, the parents are expected to receive the highest respect from the children along with the elder siblings; as they are given more responsibilities to look after younger siblings when parents are not around.
Children fighting back or addressing parents or elder siblings with arrogant tone are not at all tolerated. They are also not allowed to leave the house without their parents’ permission. Upon arriving home, conservative families expect children to practice the kissing of hands or placing their parents or elder family members’ hand to their foreheads with the words “mano po” as a sort of greeting. Even after finishing school, Filipino children are not obliged to get out of their homes unless they want to. In fact, most of them keep their close relationship to their parents by staying at least before they get married.
Leaving them happens only when they really have to, but usually, at least one child, depending on his willingness and financial capabilities, stay even after marriage to support and look after their aging parents. Moreover, Filipinos keep close connection with other relatives. They recognize them from 2nd degree to the last they can identify. As Filipinos say, “not being able to know a relative is like turning their backs from where they come from. ” • Apathy The condition of being totally free from the pathe, which roughly are the emotions and passions, notably pain, fear, desire, and pleasure, suggesting insensitivity to human condition.
Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies Conceptual Literature Disease takes a large toll, and it’s not only on the patient. The stress and strain of being an Alzheimer’s caregiver can cause a number of physical and mental problems, depression being one of the most common. Nearly half of all Alzheimer’s caregivers report that they’ve suffered from depression at some point, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. In fact, studies have found that folks providing care for a person with dementia are twice as likely to suffer from depression as a person caring or someone without dementia. ( Thompson, D. 2003 Caregiving in Early Alzheimer’s Disease) People with Alzheimer’s Disease often suffer from depression, anxiety, and other behavioral symptoms as this debilitating disorder takes its toll on their brain. In fact, experts believe that two out of every five people with Alzheimer’s disease will eventually suffer clinically significant depression. However, these feelings are not as simple as feeling a sense of loss over the disease or anxiety about what will happen. (Powers, R. 2008 Alzheimer’s Disease: Finding Support for the Caregiver) It’s important to remember that it’s not about feeling bad for yourself because you have Alzheimer’s disease,” say Dr. Powers. “The disease damages brain cells that sustain mood, so [feelings of depression or anxiety] are organic to the situation. ” And because these emotions tend to happen naturally as a physical result of the Alzheimer’s disease, there’s not much that can be done to prevent them. There are treatments available, however, that can help you or your loved one cope with depression and anxiety in Alzheimer’s disease. (Powers, R. 008 Strategies to Deal with an Alzheimer’s Patient Who Wanders) Research Literature Psychotherapy following initial diagnosis can help a patient deal with the depression, agitation, and anxiety caused by the disorder, as well as behavioral problems like delusions that can accompany Alzheimer’s. Talking to a therapist can also be helpful as someone struggles to come to terms with, and accept, their (or their loved one’s) new diagnosis. As Alzheimer’s progresses, however,psychotherapy becomes less useful to the patient as cognitive decline occurs and the ability to express feelings is lost.
Caregivers can continue to benefit from working with a mental health professional, though. (Callahan, C. 2005 Coping with the Emotional Isolation of Alzheimer’s Caregiving) “If you have dementia that can be reversed with treatment, it is not dementia,” says James Ferrendelli, MD, professor of neurology at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston. “Dementia is by definition a loss of previously acquired cognitive or intellectual function. ” “Many people have impaired thinking and reasoning skills for a variety of other reasons,” explains Dr. Ferrendelli.
These other causes can be treated and will alleviate the dementia symptoms. Although patients and doctors keep hoping for an effective dementia treatment that will reverse the effects of the condition, the reality is that there is no cure for true dementia — only certain treatments that can help slow the progression of dementia symptoms or help the patient find ways to cope. (Ferrendelli J. 2006 Helping Someone With Alzheimer’s Cope With Depression and Anxiety) Possible Psychological Effects of Alzheimer’s Disease to the Family of Bedan Financial Management Students
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