PRACTICE QUIZ – Chapter 13

A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome is
a sperm
Which life cycle stage is found in plants but not animals?
multicellular haploid
Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of a dividing cell during
meiosis I
Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that
sister chromatids separate during anaphase.
If the DNA content of a diploid cell in the G1 phase of the cell cycle is x, then the DNA content of the same cell at metaphase of meiosis I would be
2x
If we continued to follow the cell lineage from question 5, then the DNA content of a single cell at metaphase of meiosis II would be
x
How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be packaged in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8 (2n 5 8)?
16
How many genes are present in the human genome?
20,000 to 25,000 genes
What is a locus?
precise location of a gene on a chromosome
Sexual and asexual reproduction are alike in that _____.
they can both occur in multicellular organisms
A clone is the product of _____.
asexual reproduction
mitosis
Unless the chromosomes were stained to show band patterns, a karyotype would be least likely to show
part of a chromosome turned around
A karyotype is _____.
a photograph of all of an individual’s chromosomes
Fertilization produces _____.
diploid zygote
Which, if any, of the following statements is true?
Diploid cells can divide by mitosis.
Diploid cells can divide by meiosis.
Haploid cells can divide by mitosis.
Haploid cells cannot divide by meiosis.
All of the above responses are correct.
all
Which of the following is part of the life cycle called alternation of generations?
multicellular haploid stage (gametophyte)
multicellular diploid stage (sporophyte)
zygote
spores
all of the above
all
The sexual cycle of the multicellular algal genus Fucus involves _____.
mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization
A life cycle in which the only multicellular form is haploid is most typical of _____.
fungi
In sexually reproducing species, the chromosome number remains stable over time because _____ and _____ always alternate.
meiosis … fertilization
The egg (ovum) of a rabbit contains 22 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the somatic (body) cells of a rabbit?
44
In a diploid cell containing 10 chromosomes, meiosis results in the formation of daughter cells containing _____ chromosomes.
5
How many pairs of autosomes do humans have?
22
Sister chromatids are identical copies of each other formed during DNA ______
synthesis
Which of the following statements about homologous chromosomes is correct?

They are found in animal cells but not in plant cells.
They have genes for the same traits at the same loci.
They pair up in prophase II.
They are found in haploid cells.
They are found in the cells of human females but not in human males.

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They have genes for the same traits at the same loci.
Humans have 46 chromosomes. This number of chromosomes will be found in _____.
liver cells
When we say that an organism is haploid, we mean that _____.
its cells have a single set of chromosomes
Which of the following is a function of mitosis in humans?
production of eggs
production of sperm
decreasing the number of chromosomes
multiplication of body cells
increasing genetic variability
multiplication of body cells
Somatic cells in humans contain _____ set(s) of chromosomes and are therefore termed _____.
two … diploid
Nearly all life cycles have both haploid and diploid phases. Usually, the transition from haploid to diploid takes place _____.
at fertilization, when gametes fuse
Spores and gametes are different in that _____.
gametes can fuse to form a zygote, but spores can develop into independent organisms without first forming a zygote
Which of the following results in cells that contain half the parental chromosome number?
meiosis
The two cell divisions of meiosis, I and II, produce __haploid daughter cells.
four
At the end of telophase I of meiosis and the first cytokinesis, there are _____.
two haploid cells
What is the result when a diploid cell undergoes meiosis?
four haploid cells
Synapsis occurs during _____.
prophase I
Which of the following occurs during anaphase II?
Sister chromatids separate and migrate toward opposite poles.
Which of the following occurs during anaphase I?
Homologs separate and migrate toward opposite poles.
Cytokinesis is the _____.
division of one cell into two
What is the function of meiosis?
to make cells with a haploid (half that of the parents) number of chromosomes
Crossing over occurs during _____.
prophase I
Regions of chromosomes where nonsister chromatids cross over are called _____.
chiasmata
The synaptonemal complex _____.
physically connects homologous chromosomes during prophase I
An organism has a haploid chromosome number n = 4. How many tetrads will form during meiosis?
4
Which event occurs only during prophase I of the first meiotic division?
Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs.
In a male mammal, every cell that undergoes meiosis gives rise to _____ sperm.
4
Which of the following occurs in meiosis, but not mitosis?
Homologous chromosomes separate.
Which function makes meiosis lengthier and more complex than mitosis?

decreasing the chromosome number to haploid
introducing genetic variation among the daughter cells
ensuring that each daughter cell gets a single, complete set of chromosomes
undergoing two rounds of cytokinesis
all of the above

all of the above
Ignoring crossover, how many kinds of gametes can be produced by an organism with a diploid number of 8?
16
Which of the following contributes to genetic variation in sexually reproducing species?

crossing over, internal fertilization, independent assortment
independent assortment, spindle formation, random fertilization
random fertilization, DNA synthesis, independent assortment
random fertilization, independent assortment, crossing over
internal fertilization, spindle formation, crossing over

random fertilization, independent assortment, crossing over
In humans, the haploid number of chromosomes is 23. Independent assortment has the possibility of producing _____ different types of gametes.
2 to the 23rd
The diploid number of chromosomes in a certain animal is 8 (2n = 8). How do the four pairs of homologous chromosomes align and separate during meiosis?
They align and assort independently to form any of 16 different combinations.
In a diploid set of chromosomes, one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes is derived from the father (paternal), and the other comes from the mother (maternal). If 2n = 6, what is the probability of obtaining a gamete in which all the chromosomes are paternal ones?
1/8
The major contribution of sex to evolution is that _____.
it provides a method to increase genetic variation
Which of the following answers is not involved nor an outcome of crossing over?
the random alignment of homologous pairs of chromosome at metaphase I
Which of the following statements reflects an advantage that sexual reproduction likely provides over asexual reproduction?
Although energetically more costly than asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction leads to different combinations of alleles that could provide adaptability in a changing environment.

Although energetically more costly than asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction leads to different combinations of alleles that could provide adaptability in a changing environment.

Although _____ is nearly universal among animals, bdelloid rotifers _____.
sexual reproduction … reproduce asexually but can increase genetic variation present in a population by means of the uptake of DNA from other rotifers
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