Pregnancy among hispanic women
Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Community nurses can provide education to a community in need which will benefit individuals, groups, communities, and society as a whole. A community health nurse must assess the community in need and develop a teaching plan and implement the teaching. It is also very important to evaluate the outcome of the teaching and assist with any additional needs. In this paper we will discuss the needs of our community and how we will implement a teaching session. The rationale and goals will be discussed on how this teaching will benefit this community. Proposed Teaching
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The proposed teaching would be to teach the Mexican immigrant community on healthy pregnancy. Education can be given on taking prenatal vitamins including folic acid. Education can be given on the importance of folic acid to prevent birth defects and how a mother can take this one month before and during pregnancy (“Guidance for Preventing,” 2013). Education would be given on proper diet and fluid intake to maintain healthy weight for mom and infant. Education will be given on the major risks of smoking, drinking, and using drugs. The mothers will be able to view posters that have nutritional information and appropriate exercise materials that a pregnant woman can do to assist in a healthy pregnancy. The students can hand out information for free prenatal clinics where they can obtain basic prenatal care and prenatal vitamins.
Planning Before Teaching:
The teaching proposal is in regards to primary prevention for health promotion for the Mexican immigrant pregnant population in Arizona. The instructors include Launi Vos RN, Amarachuckw, Daniyel, and Robert. Estimated time for this teaching is 60 minutes and will be located in a medical clinic in El Mirage, AZ. Supplies needed for the teaching include: posters, food, videos, booklets to hand out and an overhead projector screen. The time and supplies will be donated by the Grand Canyon students.
The target community will be low income, Spanish speaking, low educated, pregnant woman and postpartum mom and infants. A translator will be present if known of the students speak Spanish. The topic being discussed will be health promotion through healthy eating, exercising and following some easy steps resulting in a healthy pregnancy.
According to the CDC one in every 33 infants is born with a birth defect. By educating mothers to manage health conditions and how to adopt healthy behaviors before pregnancy this can increase chances of a healthy infant (“Guidance for Preventing,” 2013). Many birth defects are more common in certain ethic/racial backgrounds. Hispanic woman have the highest rate of having infants with spina bifida, and anencephaly (“Folic Acid,” 2010). Reasons that Hispanic woman have the highest incidence of infants born to these defects could be that they do not consume enough folic acid in their foods, are unaware to consume daily vitamins containing folic acid, and are unaware that folic acid can prevent birth defects. Education can be given on the importance of diet and exercise for maternal health and managing of gestational diabetes and many other maternal conditions that can affect the health of the infant.
Knowledge deficit related to lack of information on the benefits of balanced nutritional meals and increase activity to prevent obesity and other chronic illnesses. Education on the benefits of a well balance diet and the importance of exercise for the expectant mother, infants and children are essential on preventing obesity and other chronic illnesses. The sooner healthy habits are implemented into one’s lifestyle, the sooner they will reap the benefits of living a better quality of life. These qualities have a greater chance of being passed down from one generation to the next (“Maternal, Infant, and Child,” 2013). The goal is to implement a plan to introduce healthy food choices into a family’s lifestyle; this includes the importance of exercise. This will be done by assessing the family’s current food choices, exercise and activity regimen. By introducing the “My Food Plate” builds on the family’s food knowledge. This may help to adapt changes
to incorporate more vegetables and dairy products to ensure that the pregnant woman has a diet enriched with folic acid. By ensuring that the family makes well doctor visits and dental visits and that the pregnant woman is enrolled in prenatal care along with taking prenatal vitamins. One of the many barriers that prevent these healthy changes is lack of accessibility to resources. Assessment of the knowledge of resources such as WIC (Women Infant and Children), federally funded food stamp programs and sliding scale or free clinics that assist those who are underinsured or not insured at all is imperative to assist with the care of the individual.
Assessing Readiness for Learning
Before implementing any plan of care the community nurse must assess the individual’s willingness to learn. The nurse must determine her incentive in taking part in the plan and her baseline of the information to be taught. The nurse can develop a plan of care specific to the client or community by speaking with the client; this allows the nurse to determine the client’s knowledge on subjects such as a well balanced meal and the importance of increased activity. By doing this, the nurse has the ability to develop a plan of care that caters to the client/community needs. This maximizes the educational time for the participants and the nurse. The participant’s willingness to participate also enhances the learning process. The community nurse must also assess the participant’s physical and mental state. The nurse must determine if there is a physical handicap interfering with the participant’s ability to perform certain tasks and if there’s a drug or alcohol problem that needs to be addressed though counseling and recovery program remembering and ensuring the client that their information is done on a confidential base. Once teaching is initiated the environment must be set to enhance learning. This includes a clean environment without the distraction of noise and unwarranted interruptions. The temperature of the room must be comfortable and additional learning tools are visible for the participant. The community nurse must ensure the environment is prepared to maximize learning (NRS 429.grand canyon university lecture)
Learning Theories and goals
The goal of this program is to enhance the compliance of participants implementing a well balanced meal and increase activity into their activities of daily living. It is also to educate on the importance of prenatal care and vitamins. This process will be accomplished through group discussion, the use of videos and additional reading material. The participants will be given the opportunity to ask questions and also be asked to explain learned information to assess the level and clarity of the information provided. A pre questionnaire will assess the participant’s knowledge base and a post questionnaire will be completed to assess the individuals acquired learning. Follow up care would include resources such as Planned Parenthood, WIC, the federally funded food stamp program, and other programs. Participants may require additional assistance to obtain their goals, which will be set up for the patient with the assistance of social workers and case management. It is the health care professional responsibility to include the participant’s culture, and to build on the client or family’s food habits, set up appropriate teaching aides for the client or family and to help the family identify areas to change that will make the greatest contribution. The transformative learning theory supports this style of teaching. It states that an adult has a tendency to reject any idea that does not correspond to their particular values, associations, and concept (Taylor, 2011). Follow up care will be provided to the participants having the community center as a home base for networking. Future forums that will empower the participants will continue to be added. Programs such as GED classes, parenting classes, family activities such as Zumba, cooking classes, and community beautification programs such will be implemented. With the end goal to enhance family and community development empowering the individual/and the community though knowledge and support. Creativity
When dealing with Mexican born women who are pregnant, many old traditions may arise and raise questions about the pregnancy. Living in America with the availability of western medicine can create some differences with the traditional handling of pregnancy. There are many traditions of the Mexican culture during pregnancy, from guessing the sex of the baby to how body movements can affect the position of the fetus. The community nurse can encourage all these traditions, but at the same time help the pregnant
mother create a pregnancy checklist. This proposed checklist will allow the mother to perform daily activities without any hindrances. By providing a checklist the mother will be able to include cultural beliefs with new age methods as she progresses in her pregnancy. Evaluation of Objectives, Goals, and Teacher
One goal for Healthy People 2020 is to improve the health of woman, infants, children, and families. Improving the overall health of mothers, infants and children is an important goal for the United States. Their well-being determines the health of the next generation (“Maternal, Infant, and Child,” 2013). Pregnancy can provide an opportunity to identify existing health risks in woman and to prevent future health problems for woman and their children (“Maternal, Infant, and Child,” 2013). Providing preventative health care is an important task for the community health nurse. Assisting in educating and leading women in healthy pregnancies can improve their health, their infant’s health and the health of the whole community. Barriers and Strategies to Overcome Barriers
One of the major barriers in pregnancy among immigrant women is a lack of education. The knowledge the pregnant mother has can be vital to the success of the pregnancy. Mothers need to understand that attending childbirth education classes are extremely important as well as bringing along the fathers to the classes. Despite the availability of healthcare Mexican women are less likely to receive adequate care during their pregnancy compared to women of other ethnic backgrounds (Kalofonos & Palinkas, 1999). It is unknown if the lack of participation in health care is due to the cultural beliefs. Mexican women need to be educated on the importance of the use of available programs to reduce the risk of negative birth outcomes. Some strategies in getting the women involved in prenatal care can include the use of Spanish speaking teachers and health care workers. Having available programs and classes held at community centers or churches where the whole family can take part in and help. The best strategy in getting pregnant mothers involved with their care is just to be honest with them and explain to them that there are people who are always there to help them no matter what. While it is difficult for nurses to relate on every level with their
patients, one effective way in getting great results from their patients is to just listen to what they have to say. After the pregnant mother expresses her concerns, we can use our nursing knowledge to formulate a better approach or plan for that mother to pursue. Pregnancy can be a scary thing for any woman, but when the woman is foreign born and may have reservations about receiving care from strangers who may not be able to understand their concerns or culture it can be even scarier. Nurses and health care workers need to reassure our patients that we are here to help them and that any concerns they have will be answered by staff in a professional and courteous manner.
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Folic acid. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/folicacid/data.html
Guidance for preventing birth defects. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/prevention.html
Kalofonos, I., & Palinkas, L. (1999). Barriers to Prenatal Care for Mexican and Mexican American Women. Journal of Gender, Culture, Health, 135.
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Taylor, E. (2001). Transformative Learning Theory. International Journal of Life Long Education, 218-236.